ArcGIS FAQs – ArcGIS Interview Question

ArcGIS provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community, and openly on the Web. Applying location-based analysis to business practices are some of the unique set of capabilities offered by ArcGIS. Here in this post we will check FAQs of ArcGIS and Common Question asked during Interview Question.

ArcGIS Interview Question – Frequently Asked Question ArcGIS

Que. What is ArcGIS?
Ans. ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information. It is used for creating and using maps, compiling geographic data, analyzing mapped information, sharing and discovering geographic information, using maps and geographic information in a range of applications, and managing geographic information in a database. ArcGIS software—Create and Share Maps, Analytics, and Data.

Que. What is open source software?
Ans. An open source application by definition is software that you can freely access and modify the source code for.
name few open source GIS software
QGIS,gVSIG, Whitebox GAT, SAGA GIS, GRASS GIS, MapWindow, ILWIS, GeoDa, uDig and OpenJump

Que. What is geocoding?
Ans. Geocoding is the process of transforming a description of a location—such as a pair of coordinates, an address, or a name of a place—to a location on the earth’s surface.

Que. What is geodatabase?
Ans. an ArcGIS geodatabase is a collection of geographic datasets of various types held in a common file system folder, a Microsoft Access database, or a multiuser relational DBMS (such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Informix, or IBM DB2).

Que. What is database server?
Ans. A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or to computers, as defined by the client–server model.

Que. What is georefrencing ?
Ans. Georeferencing means to associate something with locations in physical space. The term is commonly used in the geographic information systems field to describe the process of associating a physical map or raster image of a map with spatial locations.

Que. What is the purpose of georefrencing?
Ans. The purpose of georeferencing is to turn nonspatial imagery, such as historical air photos or maps, into spatial raster data for use in a variety of circumstances. Spatialized air photos, for example, can be used for GIS land cover analysis or to use as a baselayer on a mobile device While in the field.

Que. What is the use of arcmap?
Ans. ArcMap is the main component of Esri’s ArcGIS suite of geospatial processing programs, and is used primarily to view, edit, create, and analyze geospatial data.ArcMap allows the user to explore data within a data set, symbolize features accordingly, and create maps.

Que. What is shape file?
Ans. The shapefile format is a popular geospatial vector data format for geographic information system (GIS) software. It is developed and regulated by Esri as a (mostly) open specification for data interoperability among Esri and other GIS software products.

Que. What are the extensions of shape file?
Ans. The extensions of shapeFiles are as follows:

.shp is a mandatory Esri file that gives features their geometry. Every shapefile has its own .shp file that represent spatial vector data. For example, it could be points, lines and polygons in a map.

.shx are mandatory Esri and AutoCAD shape index position. This type of file is used to search forward and backwards.

.dbf is a standard database file used to store attribute data and object IDs. A .dbf file is mandatory for shape files. You can open .DBF files in Microsoft Access or Excel.

.prj is an optional file that contains the metadata associated with the shapefiles coordinate and projection system. If this file does not exist, you will get the error “unknown coordinate system”. If you want to fix this error, you have to use the “define projection” tool Which generates .prj files.

.xml file types contains the metadata associated with the shapefile. If you delete this file, you essentially delete your metadata. You can open and edit this optional file type (.xml) in any text editor.

.sbn is an optional spatial index file that optimizes spatial queries. This file type is saved together with a .sbx file. These two files make up a shape index to speed up spatial queries.

.sbx are similar to .sbn files in Which they speed up loading times. It works with .sbn files to optimize spatial queries. We tested .sbn and .sbx extensions and found that there were faster load times When these files existed. It was 6 seconds faster (27.3 sec versus 33.3 sec) compared with/without .sbn and .sbx files.

.cpg are optional plain text files that describes the encoding applied to create the shapefile. If your shapefile doesn’t have a cpg file, then it has the system default encoding.

Que. What extensions does raster file uses?
Ans. there are three files as img, aux and rrd. Img is the image file, aux is auxiliary (AUX or AUX.XML) file accompanies the raster in the same location and stores any auxiliary information that cannot be stored in the raster file itself. And rrd is reduced resolution dataset file created When zooming is required.

Que. What is GIS premitives?
Ans. point, line and polygon.

Que. What is pixel?
Ans. The smallest unit of information in an image or raster map, usually square or rectangular. Pixel is often used synonymously with cell.

Que. What is overlay analysis?
Ans. Overlay is a GIS operation that superimposes multiple data sets (representing different themes) together for the purpose of identifying relationships between them. An overlay creates a composite map by combining the geometry and attributes of the input data sets. Tools are available in most GIS software for overlaying both Vector or raster data.

Que. can we see each pixel value in arcmap software?
Ans. The Pixel Inspector tool is used to view the pixel values of your raster dataset When displayed in ArcMap. 

Que. Name commonly used tools in arcmap for analysis purpose.
Ans. Overlay analysis, Proximity analysis, Table analysis and management, Surface creation and analysis and Selecting and Extracting data.

Que. What extract tool does?
Ans. The Extract tools let you select features and attributes in a feature class or table based on a query (SQL expression) or spatial extraction. The output features and attributes are stored in a feature class or table.

Que. Why we use overlay tool?
Ans. The Overlay toolset contains tools to overlay multiple feature classes to combine, erase, modify, or update spatial features, resulting in a new feature class.

Que. What is feature class?
Ans. In ArcGIS, a collection of geographic features with the same geometry type (such as point, line, or polygon), the same attributes, and the same spatial reference. Featureclasses can be stored in geodatabases, shapefiles, coverages, or other data formats.

Que. Why we use proximity tool?
Ans. The Proximity toolset contains tools that are used to determine the proximity of features within one or more feature classes or between two feature classes. 

Que. Why we use statistics tool?
Ans. The Statistics toolset contains tools that perform standard statistical analysis (such as mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation) on attribute data as well as tools that calculate area, length, and count statistics for overlapping and neighboring features.

Que. Why we use conversion tool?
Ans. The Conversion toolbox contains tools that convert data between various formats.

Que. What is iteration?
Ans. repetition of a mathematical or computational procedure applied to the result of a previous application, typically as a means of obtaining successively closer approximations to the solution of a problem.

Que. What to do When a task need to repeat multiple time?
Ans. we can use modelBuilder tool.

Que. What is modelBiulder?
Ans. In ModelBuilder, you can iterate the entire model or just an individual process using Iterators.

Que. Explain spatial statistics toolbox.
Ans. The Spatial Statistics toolbox contains statistical tools for analyzing spatial distributions, patterns, processes, and relationships. 

Que. can we edit shapefile in arcmap.
Ans. yes by enabling editing option.

Que. Explain editing tool.
Ans. The Editing tools allow you to apply bulk editing to all (or selected) features in a feature class.

Que. What is attribute?
Ans. Non-spatial information about a geographic feature in a GIS, usually stored in a table and linked to the feature by a unique identifier.

Que. What is attribute query?
Ans. An attribute query is the process of searching and retrieving records of features in a database based on desired attribute values.

Que. Define two type for query in arcmap?
Ans. select by attribute and select by location.

Que. What is spatial query?
Ans. A spatial query is a special type of database query supported by geo databases and spatial databases.

Que. What are the type of attribute in GIS
Ans. Attribute data can be store as one of five different field types in a table or database: character, integer, floating, date, and BLOB.

Que. What is pyramid?
Ans. Pyramids are used to improve performance. They are a downsampled version of the original raster dataset and can contain many downsampled layers. Each successive layer of the pyramid is downsampled at a scale of 2:1. 

Que. What is raster compression?
Ans. The primary benefit of compressing your data is to reduce the size of the file to help save disk space. An added benefit is greatly improved performance over a network, because you are transferring a reduced amount of the data being read from disk and transferred to the server or direct read application. 

Que. What is coverage?
Ans. A coverage is a georelational data model that stores vector data—it contains both the spatial (location) and attribute (descriptive) data for geographic features. Coverages use a set of feature classes to represent geographic features.

Que. What is TIN?
Ans. Triangular irregular networks (TIN) have been used by the GIS community for many years and are a digital means to represent surface morphology. TINs are a form of vector-based digital geographic data and are constructed by triangulating a set of vertices (points).

Que. What is topology?
Ans. Topology is the arrangement for how point, line, and polygon features share geometry.

Que. What is terrain?
Ans. A terrain dataset is a multiresolution, TIN-based surface built from measurements stored as features in a geodatabase. They’re typically made from lidar, sonar, and photogrammetric sources. Terrains reside in the geodatabase, inside feature datasets with the features used to construct them.

Que. What is KML?
Ans. Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based format for storing geographic data and associated content and is an official Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. KML is a common format for sharing geographic data with non-GIS users as it can be easily delivered on the Internet and viewed in a number of free applications, including Google Earth and ArcGIS Explorer. KML files have either a .kml or .kmz (for compressed or zipped KML files) file extension.

Que. What is netCDF?
Ans. NetCDF (network Common Data Form) is a file format for storing multidimensional scientific data (variables) such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, and direction. Each of these variables can be displayed through a dimension (such as time) in ArcGIS by making a layer or table view from the netCDF file.

Que. What is dimension?
Ans. Dimensions are a special kind of geodatabase annotation for showing specific lengths or distances on a map. A dimension may indicate the length of a side of a building or land parcel or the distance between two features such as a fire hydrant and the corner of a building.

Que. What is arcmap?
Ans. ArcMap represents geographic information as a collection of layers and other elements in a map. Common map elements include the data frame containing map layers for a given extent plus a scale bar, north arrow, title, descriptive text, a symbol legend, and so on.

Que. What is report in arcgis?
Ans. Reports present the facts and figures behind your analysis and are invaluable companions to the maps you are creating. 

Que. What is geoprocessing?
Ans. Geoprocessing provides a large suite of tools for performing GIS tasks that range from simple buffers and polygon overlays to complex regression analysis and image classification.

Que. What is arcpy?
Ans. ArcPy is a site package that builds on (and is a successor to) the successful arcgisscripting module. Its goal is to create the cornerstone for a useful and productive way to perform geographic data analysis, data conversion, data management, and map automation with Python.

Que. can we create tool in arcMap?
Ans. yes, using arcpy we can create tool.

Que. What is color balancing?
Ans. Color balancing attempts to remove trends across images to make them look more seamless. Statistics must exist for the rasters within a mosaic dataset When using color balancing.

Que. What is data view?
Ans. In ArcMap data view, the map is the data frame. The active data frame is presented as a geographic window in Which map layers are displayed and used. 

Que. What is layout view?
Ans. The Layout view is used to design and author a map for printing, exporting, or publishing. You can manage map elements within the page space (typically, in inches or centimeters), add new map elements, and preview What your map will look like before exporting or printing it. Common map elements include data frames with map layers, scale bars, north arrows, symbol legends, map titles, text, and other graphic elements.

Que. Explain page layout.
Ans. A page layout is the arrangement of map elements and their overall design on a printed page or a digital map display. It is one of the primary display views that you work with in ArcMap—primarily to create maps for printing or for export and sharing using PDF.

Que. Explain geoid.
Ans. The geoid is defined as the surface of the earth’s gravity field, Which is approximately the same as mean sea level. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity pull. Since the mass of the earth is not uniform at all points, and the direction of gravity changes, the shape of the geoid is irregular.

Que. Explain spheroid?
Ans. A spheroid is a three-dimensional shape created from a two-dimensional ellipse. The ellipse is an oval, with a major axis (the longer axis) and a minor axis (the shorter axis). If you rotate the ellipse, the shape of the rotated figure is the spheroid.

Que. Explain datum?
Ans. A datum is built on top of the selected spheroid and can incorporate local variations in elevation. With the spheroid, the rotation of the ellipse creates a totally smooth surface across the world. Because this doesn’t reflect reality very well, a local datum can incorporate local variations in elevation.

Que. Explain geometric datum?
Ans. An earth-centred, or geocentric, datum uses the earth’s centre of mass as the origin. The most recently developed and widely used datum is WGS 1984.

Que. Explain local datum?
Ans. A local datum aligns its spheroid to closely fit the earth’s surface in a particular area. A point on the surface of the spheroid is matched to a particular position on the surface of the earth. This point is known as the origin point of the datum. The coordinates of the origin point are fixed, and all other points are calculated from it.

Que. What is projected coordinated system?
Ans. A projected coordinate system is defined on a flat, two-dimensional surface. Unlike a geographic coordinate system, a projected coordinate system has constant lengths, angles, and areas across the two dimensions. A projected coordinate system is always based on a geographic coordinate system that is based on a sphere or spheroid.

Que. What are the projection types are?
Ans. conic, cylinderical and planar

Que. Explain false easting?
Ans. False easting is a linear value applied to the origin of the x-coordinates. False northing is a linear value applied to the origin of the y-coordinates

Que. Define scale factor?
Ans. scale factor is a unitless value applied to the center point or line of a map projection.

Que. Define vertical coordinate system?
Ans. A vertical coordinate system defines the origin for height or depth values. Like a horizontal coordinate system, most of the information in a vertical coordinate system is not needed unless you want to display or combine a dataset with other data that uses a different vertical coordinate system.

Que. What is z value in gis?
Ans. One z-value is shown for the height-based mean sea level system. Any point that falls below the mean sea level line but is referenced to it will have a negative z-value. 

Que. What is vertical datum?
Ans. A vertical coordinate system (VCS) can be referenced to two different types of surfaces: spheroidal (ellipsoidal) or gravity-related (geoidal). Most vertical coordinate systems are gravity-related.

Que. What is geographic coordinate system
Ans. A geographic coordinate system uses a three-dimensional spherical surface to define locations on the earth. It includes an angular unit of measure, a prime meridian, and a datum (based on a spheroid). In a geographic coordinate system, a point is referenced by its longitude and latitude values.

Que. What is line referencing?
Ans. Linear referencing is the method of storing geographic locations by using relative positions along a measured linear feature. 

Que. What is data segmentation?
Ans. Dynamic segmentation is the process of computing the map locations of events stored and managed in an event table using a linear referencing measurement system and displaying them on a map. The term dynamic segmentation is derived from the concept that line features need not be split (in other words, “segmented”) each time an attribute value changes; you can “dynamically” locate the segment.

Que. What is arcpro?
Ans. ArcGIS Pro is the new application for creating and working with spatial data on your desktop. It provides tools to visualize, analyze, compile, and share your data, in both 2D and 3D environments.

Que. Define animation in GIS?
Ans. An animation is a visualisation of the changes to the properties of one object (such as a layer) or a set of objects (such as multiple layers). Animations make your documents come alive by storing actions so they can be replayed as you choose. 

I hope this Question answer might have helped you in understanding ArcGIS and in clearing the Basics interview question of ArcGIS. Let us know if you have any other list of questions answer available in ArcGIS by commenting below in the space provided.

Leaflet FAQs – Leaflet Interview Questions

Leaflet is one of the most popular open-source JavaScript libraries for interactive maps. Simplicity, performance and usability are the major keys of the Leaflet. It create maps right from the R console or RStudio and Use map bounds and mouse events to drive Shiny logic. Leaflet allows developers without a GIS background to very easily display tiled web maps hosted on a public server, with optional tiled overlays. Here in this post we will check FAQs of Leaflet and Common Question asked during Interview Questions.

Leaflet Interview Questions – Frequently Asked Question Leaflet

Que. What is Leaflet?
Ans. Leaflet is the leading open-source JavaScript library for mobile-friendly interactive maps.

Que. Define marker.
Ans. Marker icons in Leaflet are Defined by L.Icon objects, which are passed as an option when creating markers.

Que. Define popup.
Ans. Popups are usually used when you want to attach some information to a particular object on a map.

Que. How to add layer on map?
Ans. using command addTo(map) or addLayer() .

Que. What is GeoJSON data format?
Ans. GeoJSON is an open standard format designed for representing simple geographical features, along with their non-spatial attributes. It is based on JSON, the JavaScript Object Notation.

Que. What is topojson?
Ans. TopoJSON is an extension of GeoJSON that encodes topology. Rather than representing geometries discretely, geometries in TopoJSON files are stitched together from shared line segments called arcs.

Que. What is topology?
Ans. the study of geometrical properties and spatial relations unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of figures.

Que. list data formats.
Ans. vector and raster data format.

Que. What is tile layer?
Ans. A tile layer is a set of web-accessible tiles that reside on a server. L.tileLayer() is used to load and display tile layers on the map.

Que. What are the types of marker?
Ans. circle, polygon, point and there also Can be customized icons.

Que. Explain control in leaflet.
Ans. Leaflet has a nice little control that allows your users to control which layers they see on your map.
name control elements.
zoom, attribution, layers and scale.

Que. Explain layerGroup() in leaflet.
Ans. layerGroup() is used to group several layers and handle them as one. If you add it to the map, any layers added or removed from the group will be added/removed on the map as well.

Que. Explain layer control in leaflet.
Ans. layer control that allows your users to control which layers they see on your map.

Que. How Can you load geojson data in lealet?
Ans. using L.geoJSON() method, which accepts object in geojson format.

Que. How Can we convert layer into geojson.
Ans. Using toGeoJSON() method, which returns a GeoJSON representation of the layer group (as a GeoJSON FeatureCollection, GeometryCollection, or MultiPoint).

Que. Explain L.control.layers(baseMaps, overlayMaps).addTo(map);
Ans. The first argument passed when creating the layers control is the base layers object. The second argument is the overlays object.

Que. What is bound?
Ans. Represents a rectangular area in pixel coordinates.

Que. What do you mean by getSouthWest()?
Ans. Returns the south-west point of the bounds. Similarly we Can use getNorthEast(), getNorthWest() and getSouthEast() to get corner bounds.

Que. How Can you find width and height of screen?
Ans. width Can be obtain by subtracting bounds obtained from getNorthEast() and getNorthWest(). Similarly by subtracting getSouthWest() and etSouthEast() we Can have height.

Que. How you Can get current zoom level?
Ans. getZoom() Returns the current zoom level of the map view

Que. How can you get center coordinates of map view.
Ans. getCenter() Returns the geographical center of the map view

Que. How can you get current size of map view.
Ans. getSize() Returns the current size of the map container (in pixels).

Que. Initially How will you set the layer view on map?
Ans. setView If true, automatically sets the map view to the user location with respect to detection accuracy, or to world view if geolocation failed.

Que. How Can you fit the layer in map view?
Ans. fitBounds() Sets a map view that contains the given geographical bounds with the maximum zoom level possible.

Que. How Can you show layers coming from geoserver in leaflet?
Ans. L.tileLayer.wms() is to take data coming from geoserver in tile format

Que. Can you put not georeferenced image on map?
Ans. yes we Can.

Que. Can you georeferenced an image?
Ans. L.imageOverlay(imageUrl, imageBounds).addTo(map);

Que. What is event object?
Ans. Event object is an object that you receive as an argument in a listener function when some event is fired, containing useful information about that event.

Que. How can you get latitude longitude from map on click?
Ans. We can get the long-lat value by using:

map.on('click', function(e) {
  alert(e.latlng); // e is an event object (MouseEvent in this case)

Que. What is option in leaflet?
Ans. options is a special property that unlike other objects that you pass to extend will be merged with the parent one instead of overriding it completely, which makes managing configuration of objects and default values.

Que. What is includes in leaflet?
Ans. Includes is a special class property that merges all specified objects into the class (such objects are called mixins).

Que. How Can you disable the double click zoom option?
Ans. map.doubleClickZoom.disable();

Que. What is attribution in map?
Ans. Attribution is the act of regarding a quality or feature as a characteristic or inherent part of someone or something. The act of attributing, especially the act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work of art. You are free to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt our data, as long as you credit data provider and its contributors. 

Que. How Can you style geojson data in leaflet?
Ans. A Function defining the Path options for styling GeoJSON lines and polygons, called internally when data is added. The default value is to not override any defaults:

Que. What is choropleth map?
Ans. A choropleth map is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income.

Que. What is onEachFeature()?
Ans. A Function that will be called once for each created Feature, after it has been created and styled. Useful for attaching events and popups to features.

Que. How Can you set opacity of layer?
Ans. setOpacity() method is used to set the opacity of each layer.

Que. What is z-index?
Ans. The z-index property specifies the stack order of an element. An element with greater stack order is always in front of an element with a lower stack order.

Que. How Can you set z-index of any layer in leaflet?
Ans. setZIndex() Calls setZIndex on every layer contained in this group, passing the z-index.

Que. What is renderer in leaflet?
Ans. Base class for vector renderer implementations (SVG, Canvas). Handles the DOM container of the renderer, its bounds, and its zoom animation. A Renderer works as an implicit layer group for all Paths – the renderer itself Can be added or removed to the map.

Que. What is a plugin?
Ans. A plugin is a software add-on that is installed onto a program, enabling it to perform additional features.

Que. Why do we use plugin?
Ans. To add new features in library.

I hope this Question answer might have helped you in understanding  Leaflet and in clearing the Basics interview questions of Leaflet. Let us know if you have any other list of questions answer available in Leaflet by commenting below in the space provided.

Maps FAQs – Maps Interview Questions

Maps shows a emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes represented symbolically. Map is the shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world. Maps are most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale, such as in brain mapping, DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping. Here in this post we will check FAQs of Map and Common Question asked during Interview Questions.

Maps Interview Questions – Frequently Asked Question Maps

Que. Define Map?
Ans. A map is a visual representation of an entire area or a part of an area, typically represented on a flat surface. The work of a map is to illustrate specific and detailed features of a particular area, most frequently used to illustrate geography.

Que. Explain importance of legends.
Ans. legend is included with a map to unlock it. It gives you the information needed for the map to make sense.

Que. Explain importance of north arrow.
Ans. A north arrow (sometimes also called a compass rose) is a figure displaying the main directions, North, South, East and West. On a map it is used to indicate the direction of North.

Que. Explain importance of scale.
Ans. Map scale refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground.

Que. Explain importance of title.
Ans. Map title is an element in a Map layout that describes the theme or subject of a map. The map title should instantly give the viewer a good idea of What the map is depicting.

Que. Explain map projection.
Ans. A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Maps cannot be created without map projections.

Que. What is ortho image.
Ans. orthoimage is an aerial photograph or image geometrically corrected (“orthorectified”) such that the scale is uniform: the photo has the same lack of distortion as a map.
name few types of map.
Climatic map.
Physical map.
Political map.
Street map.
Relief map.
Thematic map.
Topographical map.

Que. What is map element.
Ans. Almost all maps must include certain basic elements that provide the reader with critical information. Among these are the title, scale, legend, body of the map, north arrow, cartographer, neatline, date of production, projection used, and information about sources.

Que. What is conical map?
Ans. A method of projecting maps of parts of the earth’s spherical surface on a surrounding cone, which is then flattened to a plane surface having concentric circles as parallels of latitude and radiating lines from the apex as meridians.

Que. What is map symbols?
Ans. A map is a smaller representation of an area on the earth’s surface; therefore, map symbols are used to represent real objects. Without symbols, maps would not be possible. Both shapes and colors can be used for symbols on maps.

Que. Define classes of map projection.
Ans. Albers Equal Area Conic, Equidistant Conic, Lambert Conformal Conic and Polyconic

Que. Explain 4 types of distortion in map.
Ans. There are four basic characteristics of a map that are distorted to some degree, depending on the map projection used. These characteristics include distance, direction, shape, and area.

Que. What is distorted map?
Ans. distortion on a map or image is the misrepresentation of shape, area, distance, or direction of or between geographic features when compared to their true measurements on the curved surface of the earth.

Que. What is DEM?
Ans. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a type of raster GIS layer. Raster GISrepresents the world as a regular arrangement of locations. In a DEM, each cell has a value corresponding to its elevation.

Que. What is DTM?
Ans. A DTM is effectively a DEM that has been augmented by elements such as breaklines and observations other than the original data to correct for artifacts produced by using only the original data.

Que. What is DSM ?
Ans. A DSM is an elevation model that includes the tops of buildings, trees, powerlines, and any other objects. Commonly this is seen as a canopy model and only ‘sees’ ground where there is nothing else overtop of it.

Que. Explain contours?
Ans. a line on a map joining points of equal height above or below sea level.

Que. What is thematic map?
Ans. A thematic map is a map that emphasizes a particular theme or special topic suchas the average distribution of rainfall in an area. They are different from general reference maps because they do not just show natural features like rivers, cities, political subdivisions and highways.

Que. What is physical map?
Ans. A physical map focuses on the geography of the area and will often have shaded relief to show the mountains and valleys.

Que. What is route map?
Ans.  A road map or route map is a map that primarily displays roads and transport links rather than natural geographical information. It is a type of navigational map that commonly includes political boundaries and labels, making it also a type of political map.

Que. What is land cover?
Ans.  Land cover is the observed (bio)physical cover on the earth’s surface. It should be confined to describe vegetation and man-made features.

Que. What is land use?
Ans.  Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.

Que. What do you mean by land use map?
Ans.  Land use/land cover data are most commonly in a raster or grid data structure, with each cell having a value that corresponds to a certain classification. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data files describe the vegetation, water, natural surface, and cultural features on the land surface.

Que. Name few land use map.
Ans.  Residential Land Use, Transportation Land Use, Commercial Land Use, Industrial Land Use, Institutional and Public Buildings and Open space and recreational land

Que. What is resolution?
Ans. In computers, resolution is the number of pixels (individual points of color) contained on a display monitor, expressed in terms of the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. The sharpness of the image on a display depends on the resolution and the size of the monitor. 

Que. What is locator map?
Ans. A locator map, sometimes referred to simply as a locator, is typically a simple map used in cartography to show the location of a particular geographic area within its larger and presumably more familiar context.

I hope this Question answer might have helped you in understanding Maps and in clearing the Basics interview questions of Maps. Let us know if you have any other list of questions answer available in Maps by commenting below in the space provided.

Geographical Information System (GIS) FAQs – GIS Interview Question

Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool that is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or Geographic data, usually in a map. GIS application is a tool that allows users to create user-created searches, integrate and analyze spatial information and present the results of all these operations. GIS describes any information system that integrates, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS technologies are using digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. Here in this post we will check FAQs of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Common Question asked during Interview Question.

GIS Interview Question – Frequently Asked Question GIS

Que. What is GIS?
Ans. GIS is a blend of S/W and H/W used to collect, manipulate analyst and produce geographical data

Que. What is the difference between geo-coding and geo-referencing?
Ans. Geo-coding is when you associate a place name or an address with map coordinates. Geo-referencing is the process of associating plain digital images taken from a satellite or a plane with map coordinates so that they can be overlaid on street maps.

Que. Name the two data structures that have the capacity to hold spatial data.
Ans. The two data structures that can hold spatial data include raster and vector.

Que. Differentiate between GIS commands and tools?
Ans. Commands do not require interaction with the map, they just rely on surface. Tools on the other hand require interaction with the map canvas.

Que. Name applications of the Arc GIS desktop.
Ans. Arc Map, Arc catalog and Arc toolbox.

Que. Define remote sensing?
Ans. Remote sensing refers to detection and classification of objects on or in earth without physical contact, generally attained through aerial sensors.

Que. What is the role of GPS in GIS?
Ans. Competent decisions can only be rendered by reliable data and though GIS is an amazing data management tool, using it with GPS helps in validating the data analysis and results.

Que. What is a globe?
Ans. A sphere shaped model of the Earth

Que. What are the 7 large land massses found on a globe called?
Ans. Continents

Que. Name the 7 continents.
Ans. Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Que. Latitude and Longitude are measured in ____ .
Ans. Degrees

Que. What does the  scale on a map shows?
Ans. Where you are,How the size of the map relates to the size of a real place and direction as North,east,south,west.

Que. What does the legend or map key tell?
Ans. Direction, What the symbols on the map mean and The distance between the equator and a point north or south on the earth’s surface

Que. What is GPS ?
Ans. Global Positioning System(GPS) is a space based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all the weather conditions, anywhere on or near the earth.

Que. List the satellite navigation systems ?
Ans. The navigation systems are as follows:

  1. GLONASS(Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema) : Russia’s global navigation system.
  2. IRNSS ( Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System),  COMPASS : People’s republic of china’s global system.

Que. Explain briefly the working principle of GPS ?
Ans. A Global Positioning System’s receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by Global Positioning System satellite high above the earth. These distances and satellite location are used to compute the location of the receiver using the Navigation Equations. Although 4 satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases.

Que. Explain the structure of GPS ?
Ans. The structure of GPS have three main segments. These are as follows: Page segment, Control segment and User segment

Que. Explain the space segment of GPS ?
Ans. Space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapter to the boosters required to launch them into orbit.

Que. Explain the control segment of GPS ?
Ans. Control segment is composed of a master control station , an alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations.

Que. Explain the user segment of GPS?
Ans. User segment is composed of thousands of U.S and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise positioning service and millions of civil and scientific users of the standard positioning service.

Que. What Is Gps Rollover?
Ans. This document contains information about GPS Week 1024 Rollover.

Que. What Is The Status Of Selective Availability (sa)?
Ans. Effective as of Midnight 01 May 2000, Selective Availability has been set to zero

Que. Explain Portable Gps?
Ans. Although any small global positioning system could be referred to as a portable GPS, the term generally refers to those units which give driving directions and are meant to be mounted in cars. Others, used for outdoor activities, are generally referred to as handheld GPS units. Still, there could be some times when the terms are confused and a portable GPS and handheld GPS are synonymous.

Que. What’s The Status Of The Gps?
Ans. The Global Positioning System reached full Operational Capability (FOC) on July 17, 1995

Que. What is a project (.mxd) file?
Ans. You can think of a project file as a database management tool. GIS users often must work on the same files for long periods of time, and the .mxd file is the management file that remembers which files you use, where they are located, the projection the file is stored in, the colors you have set, etc.

Que. What is a shapefile?
Ans. Shapefiles are computer files that produce images for users in a GIS environment. There are three basic types of shapefiles: line poin and polygon.

Que. How do I prepare spatial data for use with ArcGIS?
Ans. If you have data with spatial locators (e.g., census FIPS codes, zip codes, street addresses, etc.), you can link your data to shapefiles within a GIS environment. Furthermore, you can join tables in a GIS project.

Que. What are ArcMap, ArcCatalog and ArcToolbox?
Ans. ArcMap is the application in ArcGIS that you use to create, visualize, and manipulate maps, whereas ArcCatalog is the application in ArcGIS that you use for browsing and organizing data files. ArcToolbox is the application in ArcGIS that contains data management and conversion tools and wizards (e.g., projection tools).

Que. What are some of the functions of the Spatial Analyst extension?
Ans. The Spatial Analyst extension can help you find slopes and directions, least cost paths, and best locations for a new facility based on multiple criteria. This is useful for analyzing raster data as well as feature data.

Que. What are some of the functions of the Geostatistical Analyst extension?
Ans. The Geostatistical Analyst extension can help you with the production of statistical surfaces for exploratory spatial data analysis, structural analysis (calculating properties of neighboring areas), and surface prediction and results analysis.

Que. Is there any way to change or expand existing ArcGIS functionality?
Ans. ESRI makes a number of scripts and other downloads available for users. Scripts work with the existing software to extend functionality or to automate common tasks. The scripts on ESRI’s site come from both ESRI itself and from other ArcGIS users; you can even upload your own scripts for other people to download.

Que. How do you edit a project (.mxd) file? Why do you need to edit a project file?
Ans. Once you open your project file, editing is simple. The last saved version of your files will appear on your computer screen, and you can manipulate the existing settings to update the file. (Always remember to save it!) Project files must be edited in order for changes to be reflected in your work. You often work on GIS projects over long periods of time, and as you work, new data, shapefiles, etc. can be added to keep your project current.

Que. What is the MSD file and can I edit it?
Ans. The map service definition (MSD) file is a new file used by the fast map service drawing engine introduced at ArcGIS Server 9.3.1. The MSD file always starts with an MXD map document. You use the Map Service Publishing Toolbar to analyze your MXD in ArcMap. Once you’ve addressed issues returned by the analysis, you use the same toolbar to either publish the service or save the MSD file.

Que. How does GPS device work?
Ans. The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites “visible” in the sky. A GPS receiver’s job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location.

Que. What is Selective Availability (SA)?
Ans. SA was a technique implemented by the DOD to intentionally degrade a user’s navigation solution. The single largest source of error for SPS users was SA. The net result of SA was about a five-fold increase in positioning error. DOD achieved signal degradation by altering (also known as dithering) the satellite clock. Another means designed by DOD to degrade GPS performance was to broadcast less accurate ephemeris parameters.

Que. Why was SA Necessary?
Ans. SA was used to protect the security interests of the U.S. and its allies by globally denying the full accuracy of the civil system to potential adversaries.

Que. Will SA ever be turned back on?
Ans. It is not the intent of the U.S. to ever use SA again. To ensure that potential adversaries to do not use GPS, the military is dedicated to the development and deployment of regional denial capabilities in lieu of global degradation through SA.

Que. What kind of orbits are the GPS satellites in?
Ans. The GPS satellites operate in circular 10,900nm (20,200km) 12-hour orbits at an inclination of 55 degrees. They are not in geo-stationary orbit.
How vulnerable are GPS satellites to jamming and interference?
GPS satellite signals, like any other navigation signals, are subject to some form of interference. The FAA is actively working with the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. Government Agencies to detect and mitigate these effects and make sure that the GPS and any related augmentation systems are available for safe aviation operations. As with all navigation aids, interference, whether intentional or unintentional, is always a concern.

Que. Is the basic GPS signal sufficient to meet all the needs of civil aviation?
Ans. This is not a simple yes/no answer. The answer is that it depends on the service requirements of each user or aviation authority. For many countries, GPS supplies a better capability than the existing ground-based systems or lack thereof. Yet for other countries with large infrastructures, the GPS signal does not meet the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity requirements critical to safety of flight. Enhancements to the Global Positioning System (GPS) such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) provide the necessary corrections for meeting safety-of-life flight requirements.

Que. What is Differential GPS (DGPS)?
Ans. In the basic form of DGPS, the position of a reference receiver at a monitoring or reference station is surveyed in, that is, its position is known accurately. The user receiver should be no more than about 300 miles away from the reference receiver which makes pseudorange measurements, just as any user receiver would. However, because the reference receiver knows its position accurately, it can determine “biases” in its pseudorange measurements. For each satellite in view of the reference receiver, these biases are computed by differencing the pseudorange measurement and the satellite-to-reference receiver geometric range. These biases incurred in the pseudorange measurement process include errors arising from ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay, and satellite clock offset from GPS time. For real-time applications, the reference station transmits these biases, called differential corrections, to all users in the coverage area of the reference station. Users incorporate these corrections to improve the accuracy of their position solution.

Que. Will the GPS tracking system make the fleet management easier?
Ans. Fleet management involves managing vehicles and personnel available. It also constitutes route planning, route optimization, personnel management, asset tracking, vehicle maintenance, report generation, fuel management, etc.

Que. What are the gains of implementing student GPS tracking system?
Ans. You need to be clear about the potential gains of installing a vehicle tracker in the school buses before you start out on a GPS tracking system. Is it truly worth the cost and effort? Does it provide what it promises to offer? You should also consider getting a detailed demo run so that you will be able to understand the functioning of the system.

Que. Do you need a cost effective solution for vehicle fleet management?
Ans. The budget for each school to implement an effective solution would definitely vary. For this reason, you should consider the number of vehicles, data base needed (e.g. up to street level), additional facilities required, such SMS or PUSH notification facilities, etc. It should be decided whether all the features offered in a system is actually useful for you. There are advanced systems which even offer guided voice directions to make school bus trips less cumbersome for bus drivers and attendants.

Que. What is the potential for a gap in GPS service?
Ans. The Air Force is confident GPS will continue to meet existing service commitments. Several years ago, the Air Force recognized the potential for an availability gap and took action to institutionalize procedures and processes to mitigate the potential gap or minimize any impact. Air Force Space Command developed key processes within the operational community as well as the acquisition community to extend the life of on-orbit assets and to ensure capability is delivered in a timely manner. Users can employ GPS with confidence today and continue to do so in the future. As identified by the General Accounting Office (GAO) in testimony to Congress, “There have been times before where people have worried about gaps and the Air Force has managed them quite successfully.”

Que. Is GPS under U.S. military control?
Ans. Though acquired and operated by the Department of Defense, GPS is a multi-use system owned by the United States Government and paid for by the U.S. taxpayer. The outstanding performance of GPS over decades has earned the confidence of millions of civil and military users worldwide. The management structure and modernization efforts directed by U.S. policy continue this support for multi-user applications. Any misperceptions will be overcome as they have in the past, by a demonstrated record of service and performance to all users.

Que. What are the benefits of GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking tells you which employees are on the clock and where they’re located. You’ll be able to see who is closest to a customer when scheduling a new job on the fly, more effectively manage employees at various locations, identify inefficiencies in workloads and routes, and build trust by adding accountability safeguards that benefit everyone.

Que. How accurate is the GPS location data from the GPS device?
Ans. Different GPS devices offer differing levels of accuracy so always ask the question. AVS GPS devices have a high level of GPS accuracy of between 5 and 10 metres or better with clear skies.

Que. What is a GPS locator?
Ans. A GPS locator does not record regular position updates, it will only log its position on command. Simply send a TXT to the tracker and it will TXT back its’ location. Some GPS locators will send GPS co-ordinates (Latitude and Longitude) which can then be entered into Google to bring up a map.

Que. What are the limitations of GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking is not invincible and no GPS hardware will be able to guarantee position logs 100% of the time. GPS devices rely on being able to communicate with the satellites in space and so in highly built up areas or underground carparks reception can be blocked.

Que. What is GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking is a way of determining the location of a vehicle, person or other asset. A GPS device is attached to, or installed into, the asset you wish to track. The device then uses the Global Positioning System to record the position of the asset at regular intervals.

Que. what is trilateration?
Ans. A GPS receiver uses trilateration (a more complex version of triangulation) to determine its position on the surface of the earth by timing signals from three satellites in the Global Positioning System.

Que. What is the difference between triangulation and Trilateration?
Ans. As GPS satellites broadcast their location and time, trilateration measure distances to pinpoint their exact position on Earth. While triangulation is associated with surveying, no angles are actually involved in GPS positioning. Surveyors usetriangulation to measure distant points – not GPS receivers.

I hope this Question answer might have helped you in understanding Geographical information system and in clearing the Basics interview question of Geographical information system. Let us know if you have any other list of questions answer available in Geographical information system by commenting below in the space provided.

Geoserver FAQs – Geoserver Interview Question

GeoServer is one of the open source GIS Server, which serves Vector and Raster GIS files for instance, Shapefile, GML, KML, NetCDF, GeoTiff, GRIB, HDF5, PostGIS database etc. GeoServer is written in Java, which allows user to process, share, and edit the geospatial data. Here in this post we will check FAQs of Geoserver and Common Question asked during Interview Question.

Geoserver Interview Question – Frequently Asked Question GeoServer

Que. What is GeoServer?
Ans. GeoServer is an open source server for sharing geospatial data.

Que. What are map services?
Ans. Map services are the standard for generating maps on the web, and it is the primary interface to request map products from GeoServer.

Que. What is web server?
Ans. A web server is a program that serves content (web pages, images, files, data, etc.) using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). When you use your browser to connect to a website, you contact a web server. The web server takes the request, interprets it, and returns a response, which the browser renders on the screen.

Que. What is web mapping servers?
Ans. A web mapping server is a specialized subset of web server. Like a web server, requests are sent to the server which are interpreted and responded. But the requests and responses are designed specifically toward the transfer of geographic information.

Que. Data sources read by geoserver?
Ans. “Files
GDAL formats
Oracle Spatial
SQL Server” and few more which can be extended by installing extensions.

Que. What you mean by OGC protocols?
Ans. GeoServer implements standard open web protocols established by the Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC), a standards organisation. GeoServer is the reference implementation of the OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) standards, and contains as well a high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS). It is through these protocols that GeoServer can serve data and maps in an efficient and powerful way.

Que. Name some web mapping servers?
Ans. arcGIS server, geoserver, Mapserver, Mapnik etc.

Que. What is WMS in Geoserver?
Ans. A fundamental component of the web map (and probably the simplest to understand) is the map image. The Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard protocol for serving georeferenced map images generated by a map server. In short, WMS is a way for a client to request map tiles from a server. The client sends a request to a map server, then the map server generates an image based on parameters passed to the server in the request and finally returns an image.

Que. What is WFS in Geoserver?
Ans. A web mapping server can also (when allowed) return the actual geographic data that comprise the map images. One can think of the geographic data as the “source code” of the map. This allows users to create their own maps and applications from the data, convert data between certain formats, and be able to do raw geographic analysis of data. The protocol used to return geographic feature data is called Web Feature Service (WFS).

Que. What is SLD in GeoServer?
Ans. It defines an encoding that extends the WMS standard to allow user-defined symbolisation and coloring of geographic feature and coverage data.

Que. What is OGC?
Ans. The OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) is an international not for profit organization committed to making quality open standards for the global geospatial community.

Que. Explain OGC filter.
Ans. The OGC Filter Encoding specification provides a generic concept of a filter function. Filters are used to select features or other objects from the context in which they are evaluated. They are similar in functionality to the SQL “WHERE” clause.

Que. Name OGC filter?
Ans. “,”and “.” There are many more, to know visit

Que. What is spatial operator?
Ans. Spatial operators are used to specify conditions on the geometric attributes of a feature.

Que. What are the steps to publish data on geoserver?
Ans. Build workspace and add spatial data (Shape file or raster geoTiff) store after that publish the file by providing SRS information.

Que. How can we style data on geoserver?
Ans. To style data in geoserver you can visit style tab in data section.

Que. What is layer preview?
Ans. Layer preview in a section under data heading, which gives the details of published layer.

Que. Name format in which we can see layer in layer preview section.
Ans. KML, shapefile, CSV, geojson, GML etc.

Que. Name some vector data sources available on geoserver store.
Ans. ESRI shape file, postGIS, geoPackage, java property, and web feature server.

Que. Name some raster data sources available on geoserver store.
Ans. ArcGrid, geoTiff, gtopo30, Imagemosaic, worldImage, Netcdf and Grib with extension.

Que. What is caching defaults?
Ans. Caching Defaults page shows the global configuration options for the tile caching functionality in GeoServer

Que. What is geoWebCache?
Ans. Maps are often static. As most mapping clients render WMS (Web Map Service) data every time they are queried, this can result in unnecessary processing and increased wait times. GeoWebCache optimizes this experience by saving (caching) map images, or tiles, as they are requested, in effect acting as a proxy between client (such as OpenLayers or Google Maps) and server (such as GeoServer, or any WMS-compliant server). As new maps and tiles are requested, GeoWebCache intercepts these calls and returns pre-rendered tiles if stored, or calls the server to render new tiles as necessary. Thus, once tiles are stored, the speed of map rendering increases by many times, creating a much improved user experience.

Que. What are the data format which Can be styled on geoserver?
Ans. point, line, polygon and raster

Que. Can we replace point markers by icons?
Ans. yes, we Can. By using styling option and giving icon name in element.

Que. What is worldImage?
Ans. A world file is a plain text file used to georeference raster map images. This file (often with an extension of .jgw or .tfw) accompanies an associated image file (.jpg or .tif). Together, the world file and the corresponding image file is known as a WorldImage in GeoServer.

Que. What id Image Mosiac?
Ans. Imaging mosaicing is being doen in this project such that images taken by normal camera Can be used to create a larger field of view using a image mosaicing program. The program is basically a tools which help you to find out the corresponding camera angles that you used to take the image.

Que. What is arcGrid?
Ans. ESRI ArcInfo Grid (ESRI_grid), also known as ArcGrid, is a raster file format developed by ESRI to contain information about geographic space in a grid.

Que. What is PostGIS?
Ans. PostGIS is a spatial database extender for PostgreSQL object-relational database. It adds support for geographic objects allowing location queries to be run in SQL.

Que. What is Gtopo30?
Ans. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 kilometer). GTOPO30 was derived from several raster and vector sources of topographic information.

Que. What is tile Layer in geoserver?
Ans. It shows a listing of all of the layers known to the integrated GeoWebCache. It is similar to the Layer Preview for GeoWebCache.

Que. What is SRS in GeoServer?
Ans. A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems.

Que. What is Raster image?
Ans. A raster consists of a matrix of cells (or pixels) organized into rows and columns (or a grid) where each cell contains a value representing information, such as temperature. Rasters are digital aerial photographs, imagery from satellites, digital pictures, or even sCanned maps.

Que. What is vector?
Ans. A representation of the world using points, lines, and polygons. Vector models are useful for storing data that has discrete boundaries, such as country borders, land parcels, and streets.

Que. Why geoserver is used?
Ans. With suitable preparation of data it excels at handling very large datasets, both raster and vector. It produces high quality rendering of maps and Can handle hundreds to thousands of map layers easily.

Que. Can geoserver provide faster acces for vector data.
Ans. yes.

Que. What is web administration interface?
Ans. the Web administration interface is a web-based tool for configuring all aspects of GeoServer, from adding data to changing service settings. In a default GeoServer installation, this interface is accessed via a web browser at http://localhost:8080/geoserver/web.

Que. What is granule?
Ans. In image mosiac, each individual image is commonly referred to as a granule.

Que. What is store in Geoserver?
Ans. A store connects to a data source that contains raster or vector data. A data source Can be a file or group of files, a table in a database, a single raster file, or a directory (for example, a Vector Product Format library). The store construct allows connection parameters to be defined once, rather than for each data-set in a source.

Que. What layer mean in Geoserver?
Ans. In GeoServer, the term “layer” refers to a raster or vector dataset that represents a collection of geographic features. Vector layers are analogous to “featureTypes” and raster layers are analogous to “coverages”.

Que. What is native SRS?
Ans. Specifies the coordinate system the layer is stored in.

Que. Explain layer group in geoserver.
Ans. A layer group is a container in which layers and other layer groups Can be organized in a hierarchical structure. A layer group Can be referred to by a single name in WMS requests. This allows simpler requests, as one layer Can be specified instead of multiple individual layers. A layer group also provides a consistent, fixed ordering of the layers it contains, and Can specify alternate (non-default) styles for layers.

Que. What is GML?
Ans. Geographic Markup Language (GML) is a XML based format for representing vector based spatial data.

Que. Explain geotiff format.
Ans. GeoTIFF is a public domain metadata standard which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file. The potential additional information includes map projection, coordinate systems, ellipsoids, datums, and everything else necessary to establish the exact spatial reference for the file.

Que. Why TFW format is used?
Ans. The TFW file extension is used for plain text files that store X and Y pixel size, rotational information, and world coordinates for a map that is stored as a TIFF image in a GIS application. A GIS (geographic information system) enables you to envision the geographic aspects of a body of data.

I hope this Question answer might have helped you in understanding Geoserver and in clearing the Basics interview question of Geoserver. Let us know if you have any other list of questions answer available in Geoserver by commenting below in the space provided.