Download Algeria Administrative Boundary Shapefiles – National, Districts, Municipalities and more

Algeria Shapefile Download Map – Free Polygon Administrative Download. Shapefiles showing Districts , Municipalities and Town and Cities.

Have you been searching too long for accurate GIS data for your country of interest? Well the wait is over with MAPOG, your one-stop destination for comprehensive GIS data covering 150+ countries. You can find more than 150 GIS data for each nation in MAPOG GIS Data Collection. The distinctive feature of MAPOG GIS data collection lies in its commitment to providing highly accurate GIS data of the administrative divisions. Users can also find data of other natural and man made geographic features such as river, roads, railway lines, airport locations etc. that are represented in appropriate geometric structures (point, line and polygon). MAPOG provides two important tools for accessing these GIS datasets – Download GIS Data and Add GIS Data.

With MAPOG’s versatile toolkit, you can effortlessly upload vector and raster filesadd WMS (Web Map Service) layers, upload Excel or CSV data, incorporate existing files, perform polygon splitting and merging, generate new polygon and polyline data, use the converter for various formats, conduct buffer analysiscreate gridstransform points into polygons, calculate isochrones, and utilize the geocoder for precise location information.

We offer an extensive array of data formats, including KML, SHP, CSV, GeoJSON, Tab, SQL, Tiff, GML, KMZ, GPKZ, SQLITE, Dxf, MIF, TOPOJSON, XLSX, GPX, ODS, MID, and GPS, ensuring compatibility and accessibility for various applications and analyses.


  • All data available are in GCS datum EPSG:4326 WGS84 CRS (Coordinate Reference System).
  • You need to login for downloading the shapefile.

Download Shapefile Data of Algeria

Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. It is considered part of the Maghreb region of North Africa. It has a semi-arid geography, with most of the population living in the fertile north and the Sahara dominating the geography of the south. Algeria covers an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), making it the world’s, tenth largest nation by area and the largest nation in Africa, more than 200 times as large as the continent’s smallest country, The Gambia. With a population of 44 million, Algeria is the tenth-most populous country in Africa, and the 32nd most populous country in the world. The capital and largest city is Algiers, located in the far north on the Mediterranean coast.

Algeria National Boundary
Algeria National Boundary

Download Algeria National Boundary Shapefile

Download Algeria Districts Shapefile Data

Algeria’s districts were created as arrondissements when Algeria was a colony of France and they had a status equal to those of mainland France. They were, like France’s arrondissements, part of departements, which are further part of a région (which was called a territory, territoire, in French Algeria). They were maintained 6 years after the country’s independence (until 1968) when they were renamed “daïras” and had their functions slightly changed.

Algeria Districts Boundaries
Algeria Districts Boundaries

Download Algeria Districts Boundaries Shapefile

Download Algeria Municipalities Shapefile Data

The municipalities of Algeria form the third level of administrative subdivisions of Algeria. As of 2002, there were 1,541 municipalities in the country.

Algeria Municipalities Boundaries
Algeria Municipalities Boundaries

Download Algeria Municipalities Boundaries Shapefile

Other Administrative Boundary Data:

Other GIS Data:

Download Shapefile for the following:

  1. World Countries Shapefile
  2. Australia
  3. Argentina
  4. Austria
  5. Belgium
  6. Brazil
  7. Canada
  8. Denmark
  9. Fiji
  10. Finland
  11. Germany
  12. Greece
  13. Greenland
  14. India
  15. Indonesia
  16. Ireland
  17. Italy
  18. Japan
  19. Kenya
  20. Lebanon
  21. Madagascar
  22. Malaysia
  23. Mexico
  24. Mongolia
  25. Netherlands
  26. New Zealand
  27. Nigeria
  28. Papua New Guinea
  29. Philippines
  30. Poland
  31. Russia
  32. Singapore
  33. South Africa
  34. South Korea
  35. Spain
  36. Switzerland
  37. Tunisia
  38. United Kingdom Shapefile
  39. United States of America
  40. Vietnam
  41. Norway
  42. Chile
  43. Crotia

Disclaimer : If you find any shapefile data of country provided is incorrect do contact us or comment below, so that we will correct the same in our system as well we will try to correct the same in openstreetmap.

Download Norway Administrative Boundary Shapefiles – Regional State Administrative Agencies, Municipalities

Hey! GIS user here in this blog you can download Norway shapefile GIS data. IGISMAP have collection for more than 100 new countries. Links for downloading the shapefiles of the important administrative divisions of Norway are provided in the following. You can also download these data in any format like KML, GeoJSON, or CSV etc.


  • All data available are in GCS datum EPSG:4326 WGS84 CRS (Coordinate Reference System).
  • You need to login for downloading the shapefile.

Here is the video tutorial to download data:

Download Free Shapefile Data of Norway

Norway is a country located in Northern Europe in the northern and western parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It has a land border with Sweden to the east and a shorter border with Finland and an even shorter border with Russia to the northeast. The country’s average elevation is 460 meter’s (1,510 ft), and 32 percent of the mainland is located above the tree line. The regional climate was up to 1–3 °C (1.8–5.4 °F) warmer in 7000 BC to 3000 BC in the Holocene Climatic Optimum, (relative to the 1961-90 period), melting the remaining glaciers in the mountains almost completely during that period.

Norway National Boundary
Norway National Boundary

Download Norway National Boundary Shapefile

Download Norway Counties Shapefile Data

Norway is divided into 11 administrative regions, called counties . The island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly at the national level. The capital Oslo is both a county and a municipality.

Norway Counties Boundary
Norway Counties Boundary

Download Norway Counties Boundaries Shapefile

This shapefile covers following Counties of Norway listed below:

  • Agder
  • Innlandet
  • More og Romsdal
  • Nordland
  • Oslo
  • Rogaland
  • Vestfold og Telemark
  • Troms og Finnmark
  • Trondelag
  • Vestland
  • Viken

Download Norway Municipalities Shapefile Data

Municipalities are the atomic unit of local government in Norway and are responsible for primary education (until 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. Law enforcement and church services are provided at a national level in Norway.

Norway Municipality Boundaries Shapefiles
Norway Municipalities Boundary

Download Norway Municipality Boundaries Shapefiles

Other Administrative Boundary Data:

Download Free Shapefile for the following:

  1. World Countries Shapefile
  2. Australia
  3. Argentina
  4. Austria
  5. Belgium
  6. Brazil
  7. Canada
  8. Denmark
  9. Fiji
  10. Finland
  11. Germany
  12. Greece
  13. India
  14. Indonesia
  15. Ireland
  16. Italy
  17. Japan
  18. Kenya
  19. Lebanon
  20. Madagascar
  21. Malaysia
  22. Mexico
  23. Mongolia
  24. Netherlands
  25. New Zealand
  26. Nigeria
  27. Papua New Guinea
  28. Philippines
  29. Poland
  30. Russia
  31. Singapore
  32. South Africa
  33. South Korea
  34. Spain
  35. Switzerland
  36. Tunisia
  37. United Kingdom Shapefile
  38. United States of America
  39. Vietnam
  40. Croatia
  41. Chile
  42. Norway
  43. Maldives

Disclaimer : If you find any shapefile data of country provided is incorrect do contact us or comment below, so that we will correct the same in our system as well we will try to correct the same in OpenStreetMap.

Download Chile Administrative Boundary Shapefiles – Regional State Administrative Agencies, Municipalities & more

That’s fantastic news! GIS enthusiasts will definitely appreciate the availability of GIS data for over 100 new countries. If you’re interested in obtaining shapefiles of the important administrative divisions of Chile, you can find the download links for various formats such as KML, GeoJSON, and CSV on the IGISMAP website. These files will allow you to explore and analyze the geographical and administrative aspects of Chile in your GIS applications. Enjoy exploring the data!


  • All data available are in GCS datum EPSG:4326 WGS84 CRS (Coordinate Reference System).
  • You need to login for downloading the shapefile.

Download Free Shapefile Data of Chile

Chile is a long, narrow country stretching along South America’s western edge, with more than 6,000km of Pacific Ocean coastline. Santiago, its capital, sits in a valley surrounded by the Andes and Chilean Coast Range mountains. The city’s palm-lined Plaza de Armas contains the neoclassical cathedral and the National History Museum. The massive Parque Metropolitano offers swimming pools, a botanical garden and zoo.

Chile National Boundary
Chile National Boundary

Download Chile National Boundary Shapefile

Once you click on the link, you will be redirected to the gis data of Chile, select the format and tap on download button.

Download Chile Province Shapefile Data

A province is the second-largest administrative division in Chile with 56 in total. The largest administrative division in Chile is that of a region with 16 in total.

Chile Province Boundaries Shapefile
Chile Province Boundaries Shapefile

Download Chile Province Boundaries Shapefile

Download Chile Municipalities Shapefile Data

A commune is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It may contain cities, towns, villages, hamlets as well as rural areas. In highly populated areas, such as Santiago, Valparaíso and Concepción, a conurbation may be broken into several communes. In sparsely populated areas, conversely, a commune may cover a substantial rural area together with several settled areas which could range from hamlets to towns or cities.

Chile Municipality Boundaries
Chile Municipality Boundaries

Download Chile Municipality Boundaries Shapefile

Other Administrative Boundary Data:

Download Free Shapefile for the following:

  1. World Countries Shapefile
  2. Australia
  3. Argentina
  4. Austria
  5. Belgium
  6. Brazil
  7. Canada
  8. Croatia
  9. Denmark
  10. Fiji
  11. Finland
  12. Germany
  13. Greece
  14. India
  15. Indonesia
  16. Ireland
  17. Italy
  18. Japan
  19. Kenya
  20. Lebanon
  21. Madagascar
  22. Malaysia
  23. Mexico
  24. Mongolia
  25. Netherlands
  26. New Zealand
  27. Nigeria
  28. Papua New Guinea
  29. Philippines
  30. Poland
  31. Russia
  32. Singapore
  33. South Africa
  34. South Korea
  35. Spain
  36. Switzerland
  37. Tunisia
  38. United Kingdom Shapefile
  39. United States of America
  40. Vietnam
  41. Norway
  42. Albania
  43. GCC Sates
  44. Bolivia
  45. Algeria

Disclaimer : If you find any shapefile data of country provided is incorrect do contact us or comment below, so that we will correct the same in our system as well we will try to correct the same in OpenStreetMap.

Query GIS Data – IGIS Map Tool – Now known as MAPOG

To Query GIS Data easily with IGIS map tool, we can use the Query tool.  A GIS query tool, or selection tool as it is often know, allows us to filter a dataset based on criteria that we define.

Querying in IGIS Map Tool allows user to explore your data with rule based queries. User can discover their features of interest contained within the map by querying. IGIS Map tool allow users to build their own queries that we may not have envisaged when we first created the map. It also query GIS data according to their choice.

Query GIS Data – MapOG Tool

Query tools allow maps users to do more than what the map maker envisioned when they styled the layers. Here are the few steps to be followed for querying the map.

Query GIS data

  • Upload dataset and create a new map project Or Open your existing map project.
  • Or Download GIS data for analysis

Query GIS Data

  • Select the “Query tool” option on the Analysis Section.

  • Select the Layer to query GIS data.

Query GIS Data

All the layers in your map are available in this section, you just need to select the layer in which you want to query in.

  • Confirm a shape i.e. circle , rectangle or polygon to draw a query.

User just need to select the shape and start drawing the shape on the map to query the data. similarly as above image shows the queried data as highlighted which is queried by a rectangle.

  • Click on the Get result button after drawing the shape. You can view the result in as tables and also download them as CSV Format.

Query GIS Data

This is how you can Query GIS Data with the IGIS Map Tool in a minute. Query tools allow maps users to do more than what the map maker envisioned when they styled the layers.

IGIS Map Query Tool can be used in various sectors like Insurance, Banking, Risk Management etc. There are also other query tools available in the market.  mapOG tool however, is a much better choice to Query GIS Data if you want to share your maps with a larger, more distributed audience.

This may help you to Query GIS Data with IGIS Map Tool. If you find any problem in creating one such example do let us know by commenting below.

Interactive Real Estate Web/App Development – Cost, Time – GIS Tool

In this blog post we describe a detailed overview of Real Estate Web App GIS tool’s Requirement, Time, Technology and functionality. All of the required features and requirements of Real Estate web app GIS tools are going to be described in this post in details.

Why one should Build Interactive Real Estate Web App GIS tool:

  • For showing properties and features of your site to client:
    1. 3D Map Designs: In this digital era of the century, the Real Estate Web App GIS tool showcase your real estate properties in rich map visualization and 3D designs to your client with an interactive website to help you stand out from the crowed. Now, with 3D maps of buildings and 2D maps of interior spaces or floor plans, your client can easily access its facility information and get impressed. The 3D designs can be very helpful in enhancing communication across clients and the property which helps you get to profit the business.
    2. Amenities and Nearby places visualization -attracts customers  : Real Estate Web App GIS Tool helps in showing the amenities and nearby places of the real estates property to the clients. The Client can see and get all the information about the nearby schools, hotels, subway locations and the amenities provided at the campus in the maps.  Your best properties with map visualizations and persuasive location-based collateral helps creating the compelling marketing strategy for the clients that helps in closing the deal without even taking to real location.
    3. Digital Marketing: Real Estate Web App GIS Tool has features that provides the direct link to available location that client asked for via text, whatsapp or any social network.
  • For Real Estate Employer and Employees:
    1. Manage your properties on interactive map :  You can manage your properties on the maps according to your wish. you can handle the location details, description, availability and rates of every site/property as according to your strategy by using the tool.
    2. Market analysis: An Interactive Real Estate web app GIS tool’s maps and spatial data analysis exposes the marketing patterns that helps in improving the execution strategy of corporate deals. It lets you find the obscure insights and use that knowledge to delight your customers and maximize return on investment. With market analysis you can turn your understanding of competition, supply and demand into profits. This tool helps you to identify market gaps and its spatial data analysis help identifying investment properties which bring the best return for the client.


Sites, Buildings, Plots etc these are the entities that makes Real Estate but there is only one thing that matters in each one of them i.e. ‘Location’. Location is always one of the determining factors influencing property value in Real Estate Business. They say to get success in Real Estate you should know how to apply both of your financial and geographic expertise.

As of Real Estate, location is the origin of geographic data for GIS users. The accuracy of location decides the value and importance of data and how it will be used. As we see location is the common focus point for both, GIS can be used as a valuable tool in many different conventions of real estate. And here we have the perfect tool which allows you to use insight, creativity and objectivity to work out the best deal for the company and their clients and take marketing and profits to the next level.

Real Estate Web App GIS tool has the range of functions which allows the use of psychographic data and spatial analysis to deliver clients the highest possible return on their site selection strategy. This system allows you to integrate a large variety of data into one into one place i.e. Map, where you can present your clients with an infographic (visual representation of information that use designs to display information content) representation affecting the desirability and value of a property can give a far more accurate picture of a property’s suitability to their needs.

We provide simple and versatile Real Estate Web App GIS tool which is backed up by live support. We upsurge your business with the sharpest technology and outstanding features.

Now you can have more time with your client then sitting in front of a computer.

Requirement Gathering:

        • What do client require?

          We have an absolute idea of our client’s needs for the Website tool in their business, so here is a list of some main requirements we think that every client would want in their Real Estate Web App GIS tool.

          • Communicate assessment information with maps
          • communicate data quickly and clearly
          • express complex data simply and enhances understanding and comprehension
          • self-contained summery of sites that the client needs or value
          • presenting cause and effect insights in impactful ways
          • summarized and interpretive conveying of statistical data
          • Logically grouping of quantitative sales data and presenting them as structured information through charts/reports/maps.
          • Escalating market knowledge with the location based data to help better understands factors that drive growth for the business and uncovering hidden opportunities for a competitive advantage.
          • More accurately estimating the impact of location on property value
          • Performing better market analysis with spatial analysis and powerful decision-making insight.
          • With location-based data transforming the reports into data-driven decisions that expands marketing and site selections.
          • Getting professional work of captivating maps, reports and interactive web portal which distinguish us from competition.
        • Software Requirement:

          These are some software requirements for the implementation of the Real Estate Web App GIS tool:

          • Server: We can use any server for this Website tool but we prefer these two servers to be precise that we will be working on:
          1. NGINX Server – Nginx is an open source web server which can handle a website with a huge amount of traffic. It is a high performance web server developed with an intention to handle websites with large number of users. Its speciality is that it can run on a minimal amount of resources and handle a large number of requests.
          2. Digital Ocean Server – Digital ocean server or ‘droplets’ is a cloud server which is designed to store and server massive amount of data while making it easy and cost effective. Digital ocean server use KVM as hyperviser and can be created in various sizes. It helps in build deploy and scale cloud application faster and more efficient

          We personally recommend using Digital Ocean Server, as it is much faster, easy and cost efficient.

          • Converter: Converter can be used to convert the information data file of one format to another format. There are many converters available online you can use any one of them but we prefer IgisMap Converter which converts any type of raster or vector data file into another format.
          • Leaflet: With leaflet you can compute the features bounding box, create a layer group, remove or add as many marker or different layer as you want on a map. Adding vector layers, raster layers, adding wms or wfs layer (can be used to serve and render geoserver or map server layers), selecting and hovering over lat-long are some of the functionality which can be easily grabbed by leaflet js map library.
          • Database: We will be using this database for storing the Real Estate data :
          1. PostGIS/PostGreSQL : PostGIS is an open source software program that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL object-relational database. PostGIS follows the Simple Features for SQL specification from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
          • Mapping Systems: This is the main software component of the Real Estate Web App GIS tool. This whole system is dependent on the web mapping of the data. For mapping the data we can use any of these two Mapping systems.
          1. Google Maps: Google Maps is the tool which is used to display geographical information on a map which is in a widely accepted standard format for digital maps.
          2. OSM (Open Street Map): OSM is the software that creates and distributes the open source graphic data of the world. OSM has no restriction of technical or legal type. It allows free access to its map images and underlying map data. All the Real estate data locations can be found here with the nearby entities as well.


      • Easy data uploading:

        We are providing a direct interface for uploading the spatial data to generate the maps. You can just upload the real estate locations spatial data into the database which will present the infographic representation of the data i.e. maps. You can upload any type of data and if you have data in spreadsheet you can open our other tool IgisMap Converter and convert your data into the spatial data format and then upload it.

      • Web Mapping:

        Real Estate Web App GIS tool represents the real estate location spatial data as infographic data/web maps via leaflet. The company can present data from all over the world with as much properties into the map. Real estate professionals can target properties to match exact specifications and deliver the answers needed to make the most intelligent choices with the web maps. This data facilitates better decision making and tells a compelling story that illustrates the ways in which the proposed development will be an attractive investment for both the developer and the neighborhood residents.

      • Customizing Maps:

        The maps can be customized in whatever way the client wants them to be. Company can style the map according to their wishes or the client. In styling the color, popup details, markers can be changed or customized. Specific areas of City/County/colony can be filtered with the help of Polygon and then the real estate data will be presented. Think about how companies handle their customer relationship management (CRM) data. Managing or customizing your location data map requires a similar approach if you want to leverage its value. Doing so will ensure that your teams and their clients have the most accurate and timely data in their hands.

      • Web 3D Map:

        Map with third dimension on Web gives you a new way to visualize reality. Isn’t that cool if you get to know building level detail, analyze the surface by getting elevation detail and get the actual visualization to some extent even without visiting the area. Adding third dimension to a map is an add-on for geographers, government bodies and to every individual for proper understanding the geographic area. Real Estate can take advantage of Web 3D Map with existing GIS database knowledge. As it can get their clients introduced to a new place or building before taking a tour to an unknown area.

      • Analytic reports:

        Companies or Builders can use analysis to compare the desirability of locations can help ensure fair and equitable valuation of property. Spatial analysis gives the client, and ultimately the seller, the ability to more easily showcase the subject property’s characteristics and advantages with respect to its location. As the ability to see a property overlaid by school districts, aerial photography, shopping access, and utility services gives the Client an immediate sense of place for their possible new home. You can shift your strategy to provide new, compelling, and original information to your clients which can pay off in many ways. Better analytics, efficient data management, and relevant information products result in real return on investment. Analytics reports can be generated in any format and you can download it to use it further.


Contact us at our mail or put a comment below to discuss the expected cost.

Geographical Information System (GIS) FAQs – GIS Interview Question

Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool that is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or Geographic data, usually in a map. GIS application is a tool that allows users to create user-created searches, integrate and analyze spatial information and present the results of all these operations. GIS describes any information system that integrates, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS technologies are using digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. Here in this post we will check FAQs of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Common Question asked during Interview Question.

GIS Interview Question – Frequently Asked Question GIS

Que. What is GIS?
Ans. GIS is a blend of S/W and H/W used to collect, manipulate analyst and produce geographical data

Que. What is the difference between geo-coding and geo-referencing?
Ans. Geo-coding is when you associate a place name or an address with map coordinates. Geo-referencing is the process of associating plain digital images taken from a satellite or a plane with map coordinates so that they can be overlaid on street maps.

Que. Name the two data structures that have the capacity to hold spatial data.
Ans. The two data structures that can hold spatial data include raster and vector.

Que. Differentiate between GIS commands and tools?
Ans. Commands do not require interaction with the map, they just rely on surface. Tools on the other hand require interaction with the map canvas.

Que. Name applications of the Arc GIS desktop.
Ans. Arc Map, Arc catalog and Arc toolbox.

Que. Define remote sensing?
Ans. Remote sensing refers to detection and classification of objects on or in earth without physical contact, generally attained through aerial sensors.

Que. What is the role of GPS in GIS?
Ans. Competent decisions can only be rendered by reliable data and though GIS is an amazing data management tool, using it with GPS helps in validating the data analysis and results.

Que. What is a globe?
Ans. A sphere shaped model of the Earth

Que. What are the 7 large land massses found on a globe called?
Ans. Continents

Que. Name the 7 continents.
Ans. Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Que. Latitude and Longitude are measured in ____ .
Ans. Degrees

Que. What does the  scale on a map shows?
Ans. Where you are,How the size of the map relates to the size of a real place and direction as North,east,south,west.

Que. What does the legend or map key tell?
Ans. Direction, What the symbols on the map mean and The distance between the equator and a point north or south on the earth’s surface

Que. What is GPS ?
Ans. Global Positioning System(GPS) is a space based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all the weather conditions, anywhere on or near the earth.

Que. List the satellite navigation systems ?
Ans. The navigation systems are as follows:

  1. GLONASS(Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema) : Russia’s global navigation system.
  2. IRNSS ( Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System),  COMPASS : People’s republic of china’s global system.

Que. Explain briefly the working principle of GPS ?
Ans. A Global Positioning System’s receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by Global Positioning System satellite high above the earth. These distances and satellite location are used to compute the location of the receiver using the Navigation Equations. Although 4 satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases.

Que. Explain the structure of GPS ?
Ans. The structure of GPS have three main segments. These are as follows: Page segment, Control segment and User segment

Que. Explain the space segment of GPS ?
Ans. Space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapter to the boosters required to launch them into orbit.

Que. Explain the control segment of GPS ?
Ans. Control segment is composed of a master control station , an alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations.

Que. Explain the user segment of GPS?
Ans. User segment is composed of thousands of U.S and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise positioning service and millions of civil and scientific users of the standard positioning service.

Que. What Is Gps Rollover?
Ans. This document contains information about GPS Week 1024 Rollover.

Que. What Is The Status Of Selective Availability (sa)?
Ans. Effective as of Midnight 01 May 2000, Selective Availability has been set to zero

Que. Explain Portable Gps?
Ans. Although any small global positioning system could be referred to as a portable GPS, the term generally refers to those units which give driving directions and are meant to be mounted in cars. Others, used for outdoor activities, are generally referred to as handheld GPS units. Still, there could be some times when the terms are confused and a portable GPS and handheld GPS are synonymous.

Que. What’s The Status Of The Gps?
Ans. The Global Positioning System reached full Operational Capability (FOC) on July 17, 1995

Que. What is a project (.mxd) file?
Ans. You can think of a project file as a database management tool. GIS users often must work on the same files for long periods of time, and the .mxd file is the management file that remembers which files you use, where they are located, the projection the file is stored in, the colors you have set, etc.

Que. What is a shapefile?
Ans. Shapefiles are computer files that produce images for users in a GIS environment. There are three basic types of shapefiles: line poin and polygon.

Que. How do I prepare spatial data for use with ArcGIS?
Ans. If you have data with spatial locators (e.g., census FIPS codes, zip codes, street addresses, etc.), you can link your data to shapefiles within a GIS environment. Furthermore, you can join tables in a GIS project.

Que. What are ArcMap, ArcCatalog and ArcToolbox?
Ans. ArcMap is the application in ArcGIS that you use to create, visualize, and manipulate maps, whereas ArcCatalog is the application in ArcGIS that you use for browsing and organizing data files. ArcToolbox is the application in ArcGIS that contains data management and conversion tools and wizards (e.g., projection tools).

Que. What are some of the functions of the Spatial Analyst extension?
Ans. The Spatial Analyst extension can help you find slopes and directions, least cost paths, and best locations for a new facility based on multiple criteria. This is useful for analyzing raster data as well as feature data.

Que. What are some of the functions of the Geostatistical Analyst extension?
Ans. The Geostatistical Analyst extension can help you with the production of statistical surfaces for exploratory spatial data analysis, structural analysis (calculating properties of neighboring areas), and surface prediction and results analysis.

Que. Is there any way to change or expand existing ArcGIS functionality?
Ans. ESRI makes a number of scripts and other downloads available for users. Scripts work with the existing software to extend functionality or to automate common tasks. The scripts on ESRI’s site come from both ESRI itself and from other ArcGIS users; you can even upload your own scripts for other people to download.

Que. How do you edit a project (.mxd) file? Why do you need to edit a project file?
Ans. Once you open your project file, editing is simple. The last saved version of your files will appear on your computer screen, and you can manipulate the existing settings to update the file. (Always remember to save it!) Project files must be edited in order for changes to be reflected in your work. You often work on GIS projects over long periods of time, and as you work, new data, shapefiles, etc. can be added to keep your project current.

Que. What is the MSD file and can I edit it?
Ans. The map service definition (MSD) file is a new file used by the fast map service drawing engine introduced at ArcGIS Server 9.3.1. The MSD file always starts with an MXD map document. You use the Map Service Publishing Toolbar to analyze your MXD in ArcMap. Once you’ve addressed issues returned by the analysis, you use the same toolbar to either publish the service or save the MSD file.

Que. How does GPS device work?
Ans. The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites “visible” in the sky. A GPS receiver’s job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location.

Que. What is Selective Availability (SA)?
Ans. SA was a technique implemented by the DOD to intentionally degrade a user’s navigation solution. The single largest source of error for SPS users was SA. The net result of SA was about a five-fold increase in positioning error. DOD achieved signal degradation by altering (also known as dithering) the satellite clock. Another means designed by DOD to degrade GPS performance was to broadcast less accurate ephemeris parameters.

Que. Why was SA Necessary?
Ans. SA was used to protect the security interests of the U.S. and its allies by globally denying the full accuracy of the civil system to potential adversaries.

Que. Will SA ever be turned back on?
Ans. It is not the intent of the U.S. to ever use SA again. To ensure that potential adversaries to do not use GPS, the military is dedicated to the development and deployment of regional denial capabilities in lieu of global degradation through SA.

Que. What kind of orbits are the GPS satellites in?
Ans. The GPS satellites operate in circular 10,900nm (20,200km) 12-hour orbits at an inclination of 55 degrees. They are not in geo-stationary orbit.
How vulnerable are GPS satellites to jamming and interference?
GPS satellite signals, like any other navigation signals, are subject to some form of interference. The FAA is actively working with the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. Government Agencies to detect and mitigate these effects and make sure that the GPS and any related augmentation systems are available for safe aviation operations. As with all navigation aids, interference, whether intentional or unintentional, is always a concern.

Que. Is the basic GPS signal sufficient to meet all the needs of civil aviation?
Ans. This is not a simple yes/no answer. The answer is that it depends on the service requirements of each user or aviation authority. For many countries, GPS supplies a better capability than the existing ground-based systems or lack thereof. Yet for other countries with large infrastructures, the GPS signal does not meet the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity requirements critical to safety of flight. Enhancements to the Global Positioning System (GPS) such as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) provide the necessary corrections for meeting safety-of-life flight requirements.

Que. What is Differential GPS (DGPS)?
Ans. In the basic form of DGPS, the position of a reference receiver at a monitoring or reference station is surveyed in, that is, its position is known accurately. The user receiver should be no more than about 300 miles away from the reference receiver which makes pseudorange measurements, just as any user receiver would. However, because the reference receiver knows its position accurately, it can determine “biases” in its pseudorange measurements. For each satellite in view of the reference receiver, these biases are computed by differencing the pseudorange measurement and the satellite-to-reference receiver geometric range. These biases incurred in the pseudorange measurement process include errors arising from ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay, and satellite clock offset from GPS time. For real-time applications, the reference station transmits these biases, called differential corrections, to all users in the coverage area of the reference station. Users incorporate these corrections to improve the accuracy of their position solution.

Que. Will the GPS tracking system make the fleet management easier?
Ans. Fleet management involves managing vehicles and personnel available. It also constitutes route planning, route optimization, personnel management, asset tracking, vehicle maintenance, report generation, fuel management, etc.

Que. What are the gains of implementing student GPS tracking system?
Ans. You need to be clear about the potential gains of installing a vehicle tracker in the school buses before you start out on a GPS tracking system. Is it truly worth the cost and effort? Does it provide what it promises to offer? You should also consider getting a detailed demo run so that you will be able to understand the functioning of the system.

Que. Do you need a cost effective solution for vehicle fleet management?
Ans. The budget for each school to implement an effective solution would definitely vary. For this reason, you should consider the number of vehicles, data base needed (e.g. up to street level), additional facilities required, such SMS or PUSH notification facilities, etc. It should be decided whether all the features offered in a system is actually useful for you. There are advanced systems which even offer guided voice directions to make school bus trips less cumbersome for bus drivers and attendants.

Que. What is the potential for a gap in GPS service?
Ans. The Air Force is confident GPS will continue to meet existing service commitments. Several years ago, the Air Force recognized the potential for an availability gap and took action to institutionalize procedures and processes to mitigate the potential gap or minimize any impact. Air Force Space Command developed key processes within the operational community as well as the acquisition community to extend the life of on-orbit assets and to ensure capability is delivered in a timely manner. Users can employ GPS with confidence today and continue to do so in the future. As identified by the General Accounting Office (GAO) in testimony to Congress, “There have been times before where people have worried about gaps and the Air Force has managed them quite successfully.”

Que. Is GPS under U.S. military control?
Ans. Though acquired and operated by the Department of Defense, GPS is a multi-use system owned by the United States Government and paid for by the U.S. taxpayer. The outstanding performance of GPS over decades has earned the confidence of millions of civil and military users worldwide. The management structure and modernization efforts directed by U.S. policy continue this support for multi-user applications. Any misperceptions will be overcome as they have in the past, by a demonstrated record of service and performance to all users.

Que. What are the benefits of GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking tells you which employees are on the clock and where they’re located. You’ll be able to see who is closest to a customer when scheduling a new job on the fly, more effectively manage employees at various locations, identify inefficiencies in workloads and routes, and build trust by adding accountability safeguards that benefit everyone.

Que. How accurate is the GPS location data from the GPS device?
Ans. Different GPS devices offer differing levels of accuracy so always ask the question. AVS GPS devices have a high level of GPS accuracy of between 5 and 10 metres or better with clear skies.

Que. What is a GPS locator?
Ans. A GPS locator does not record regular position updates, it will only log its position on command. Simply send a TXT to the tracker and it will TXT back its’ location. Some GPS locators will send GPS co-ordinates (Latitude and Longitude) which can then be entered into Google to bring up a map.

Que. What are the limitations of GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking is not invincible and no GPS hardware will be able to guarantee position logs 100% of the time. GPS devices rely on being able to communicate with the satellites in space and so in highly built up areas or underground carparks reception can be blocked.

Que. What is GPS tracking?
Ans. GPS tracking is a way of determining the location of a vehicle, person or other asset. A GPS device is attached to, or installed into, the asset you wish to track. The device then uses the Global Positioning System to record the position of the asset at regular intervals.

Que. what is trilateration?
Ans. A GPS receiver uses trilateration (a more complex version of triangulation) to determine its position on the surface of the earth by timing signals from three satellites in the Global Positioning System.

Que. What is the difference between triangulation and Trilateration?
Ans. As GPS satellites broadcast their location and time, trilateration measure distances to pinpoint their exact position on Earth. While triangulation is associated with surveying, no angles are actually involved in GPS positioning. Surveyors usetriangulation to measure distant points – not GPS receivers.

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