## Convert – Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal Minutes to Decimal Degree format – Latitude Longitude

Convert – Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal Minutes to Decimal Degree format. Geographical location information is represented in terms of Latitude and Longitude, where Latitude gives the angular distance of a point from equator to elevation either north or south, and Longitude gives the angular distance of a point east or west of the meridian. This Angular distance values of Lat and Lon is either represented in Degree, Minute, Seconds(dd,mm,ss) number system or Decimal Degree number system. So let us discuss about, how to represent the location with Latitude and Longitude, their value range and how to convert them with the tool.

#### Latitude values Range:

Point on Equator line is calculated as 0° latitude, while North pole as 90°N and South pole as 90°S. Latitude values range in between 0° and 90° in positive
(representing north) and in negative (representing south) values.

#### Longitude values Range:

Prime Meridian or Greenwich meridian is defined as 0° longitude. Longitude values ranges from 0° to 180° east or from 0° to 180° west.

### Latitude and Longitude Representation – Different converted formats:

Generally in three formats, latitude and longitude values are represented. Let us take example of each format, by taking latitude longitude of San Antonio.
1.) Degree Minutes Seconds :
For example: 29° 25′ 26.5152″, -98° 29′ 37.6974″

2.) Degree Decimal Minutes:
For example: 29° 25.441916666667’ , -98° 29.6283’

3.) Decimal Degree:
For example: 29.424032, -98.493805

## Convert – Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal Minutes to Decimal Degree format

Earth equator line is divided in 360 equal parts, each part represents a degree distance, where 1°=111.32 Km. Every Degree is further divided in 60 minutes. This means, 1 minute = 111.32/60 = 1.85 Km, and every minute is divided in 60 seconds. So 1 seconds = 1.85/60 = 0.0309 Km.

### Convert Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal for the Latitude Longitude values:

As 1°=60’=3600”, so we can compute degree decimal by:

d = degree + minute / 60 + seconds/3600

Let us take an example: Compute 29° 25′ 26.5152″, -98° 29′ 37.6974″ to degree decimal:

Latitude to Degree Decimal = d = 29 + 25/60 + 26.5152/3600 = 29.42432
Longitude to Degree Decimal = d = -(98 + 29/60 + 37.6974/3600) = -98.493805

#### Tool to convert lat lon values from degree minute seconds to degree decimal:

LATITUDE :Degree= Minute= Seconds=

LONGITUDE :Degree= Minute= Seconds=

Latitude :

Longitude :

### Convert Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal:

Again, as 1°=60’=3600”, we would compute Degree, Minute and Seconds separately from Degree Decimal.

• Degree = integer part of Decimal degree = int(ddd.dd) = ddd.
• Minute = integer part of ((Decimal degree – Degree computed above) * 60) = int(ddd.dd – ddd) * 60.
• Seconds = (Degree Decimal – degree – Minute/60) * 3600 = (ddd.dd – ddd – m/60)*3600

Let us take an example. Compute 29.424032, -98.493805 to Degree Minute Seconds format:

Degree = int(29.424032) = 29
Minute = int((29.424032 – 29) * 60) = int (25.44192) = 25
Seconds = (29.424032 – 29 – 25/60) * 3600 = 26.5152″

So latitude = 29° 25′ 26.5152”

Similarly computing longitude of -98.493805, we get the degree minute second to -98° 29′ 37.6974.

LATITUDE :
LONGITUDE :

Latitude :

Longitude :

### Convert – Degree Minute Seconds to Degree Decimal Minutes:

Fetch the Seconds number, and divide it by 60, and then add the result with minute,

For example: Convert 29° 25′ 26.5152” to Degree Decimal Minute:

• Here Seconds = 26.5152,
• so dividing it by 60 i.e 26.5152/60 = 0.44.
• Now add this with Minute, we will get 29° 25.44, which is in Degree Decimal Minutes format. If you multiply again 0.44 by 60 you will get again Degree Minute seconds format.

#### You may find further link, to find the tool for conversion of Latitude longitude format, with Map view:

Latitude Longitude format Conversion – Degree Decimal, Degree Minute Seconds and Degree Decimal Minutes

Do comment below, if you have any doubt or if you want share any other related information with us by commenting below.

## Formula to Find Bearing or Heading angle between two points: Latitude Longitude

Formula to Find Bearing or Heading angle between two points. Bearing or heading angle is used to define navigation generally in the field of aircraft or marine or Vehicle navigation or while working for land surveying. So what’s the heading or bearing? How we can find bearing between the two points on earth, with the formula? Or How we can find the other point, when one point, actual traveled distance and bearing is given? Let us discuss all this points, followed with the example and experiment with the tool for calculating bearing provided in the post.

• ### Bearing Calculator GIS Tool

• Route Compass – Bearing Angle Tool : This tool will help you to create a Route through Bearing angle and Distnace which can be used by many different applications.

Bearing can be defined as direction or an angle, between the north-south line of earth or meridian and the line connecting the target and the reference point. While Heading is an angle or direction where you are currently navigating in.  This means to reach a particular destination you need to adjust your heading direction with the bearing. Generally a ‘compass’ is an instrument, which gives you the direction information for navigation. You must refer Haversine distance formula before going through this post.

## Calculating Bearing or Heading angle between two points:

So if you are from GIS field or dealing with GIS application, you should know bearing and how to calculate bearing with formula. Let us look on formula and tool for bearing:

• Let ‘R’ be the radius of Earth,
• L’ be the longitude,
• ‘θ’ be latitude,
• β‘ be Bearing.

Denote point A and B as two different points, where ‘La’ is point A longitude and ‘θa’ is point A latitude, similarly assume for point B. Bearing would be measured from North direction i.e 0° bearing means North, 90° bearing is East, 180° bearing is measured to be South, and 270° to be West.

Note: If bearing is denoted with +ve or –ve initials whose values lies between 0° to 180°, then –ve is denoted for South and West sides.

### Formula to find Bearing, when two different points latitude, longitude is given:

Bearing from point A to B, can be calculated as,

β = atan2(X,Y),

where, X and Y are two quantities and can be calculated as:

X = cos θb * sin ∆L

Y = cos θa * sin θb – sin θa * cos θb * cos ∆L

Lets us take an example to calculate bearing between the two different points with the formula:

• Kansas City: 39.099912, -94.581213
• St Louis: 38.627089, -90.200203

So X and Y can be calculated as,

X =  cos(38.627089) * sin(4.38101)

X  = 0.05967668696

And

Y = cos(39.099912) * sin(38.627089) – sin(39.099912) * cos(38.627089) * cos(4.38101)

Y = 0.77604737571 * 0.62424902378 – 0.6306746155 * 0.78122541965 * 0.99707812506

Y = -0.00681261948

So as, β = atan2(X,Y) = atan2(0.05967668696, -0.00681261948) = 1.684463062558 radians

convert it into degree

β = 96.51°

This means, from Kansas City if we move in 96.51° bearing direction, we will reach St Louis.

You can also check video explanation of bearing angle.

Tool to find bearing angle between two lat lon points:

Check out the following IGISMap tools to work with Bearing Angle

### IGISMap Bearing Angle Tool

IGISMap is a GIS based web platform providing multiple GIS applications that are most important in the field of geospatial analytics. The peculiarity of IGISMAP in the GIS Industry is its UI/UX that helps the user to perform effortless geospatial operations.

Bearing Angle tool of IGISMap can be used to create geospatial path based on bearing angle, distance and location. A path will be one or more straight lines connected between points plotted in order. User can plot required locations by simply clicking on the map or by entering address or coordinates. The path created in Bearing Angle will be available as GIS layer in the IGISMap. This GIS layer can be downloaded as GIS data in any format such as Shapefile, GeoJSON, CSV or KML.

Check https://routecompass.mapog.com to open Bearing Angle

### Formula to find a lat lon point, when bearing, distance and another lat lon is given

Let us assume a condition, where you want to find out the where will an Airplane will land up, if you have following details of that Airplane, i.e actual distance it will travel, the bearing and the starting point (lat,lon)?

• Let first point latitude be la1,
• longitude as lo1,
• d be distance,
• R as radius of Earth,
• Ad be the angular distance i.e d/R and
• θ be the bearing,

Here is the formula to find the second point, when first point, bearing and distance is known:

• latitude of second point = la2 =  asin(sin la1 * cos Ad  + cos la1 * sin Ad * cos θ), and
• longitude  of second point = lo2 = lo1 + atan2(sin θ * sin Ad * cos la1 , cos Ad – sin la1 * sin la2)

You may find both the tool on separate page, with Google map working on it: (It will be update in 2 days, please visit us again)

• Tool to Find Bearing, when two points are given
• Tool to find other point, when bearing, distance and one of the point is given.

I hope this article will definitely help you, to find the bearing or heading. You are free to share more data related to bearing or any thing that you uses to calculate bearing and how you use navigation with bearing.

If you find anything difficulty to understand the bearing calculation, you may comment below, so that we will discuss further on finding bearing or heading angle.

Now we are on Youtube also. Please Like, Share and Subscribe our Channel IGIS Map

Upload or add kml or KML file on Google Earth. KML or KMZ is a file which models geographic features for displaying in Google Earth or Google Maps. You can easily add and upload KML file on Google Earth. This files can be easily created on Google Map or on Google Earth or on Any GIS tool. You may need to upload a shared or newly created KML file from third party, and want to verify whether the overlapped KML or KMZ file is valid or not. You may use Google Earth Pro instead Google Earth as it is now free to download.

Before following the below steps, download or create one of the KML file to taking demo. You can either create and export KML file from Google Map or from Google Earth or you may also convert your shapefile to KML or KMZ file from QGIS.

1.) Launch Google Earth in your desktop either Mac or Windows OS.

2.) Click on File menu, and select Open. Now browse to the KML or KMZ file which you want to upload on Google Earth. This will upload KML or KMZ file which may either be point, multipoint, line or polygon.

3.) In the places panel, you may file a new folder with Temporary Places containing your KML map. Double click on the KML map appear in panel to explore all layers and all associated elements(point, line or polygon).
To every element present in layer, you can either cut, copy, paste and delete,  and save – download the KML map to my places folder of Google Earth. Also you change the properties i.e Description, Style or Color of markers and line, Altitue and Measurement.

1.) To add multiple KML file, you first need to follow the above steps to add the one.

2.) Now on the folder where your maps is actually loaded i.e in my case in “Temporary Places” right click and select add -> Network link. This will open up a New network link window.

3.) Select browse, and navigate to another KML file which you want to upload.

4.) Ok. Now your system is ready with multiple KML file on Google Earth. You can customize the uploaded KML file in same way as described above. Now you can perform GIS operation and analysis on Google Earth with uploaded overlayed KML file.

### Comparison list – Google Earth Basic vs Google Earth Pro version

But before downloading the Google Earth pro version which is actually free for now, we may compare Google Earth Basic version with Google Earth pro version and also list out extra features which makes your life easier going pro.

• Google Earth provide Screen Resolution print images, while pro version of earth provides Premium high resolution images.
• Earth enables you to import and Geolocate GIS images manually, while with pro version GIS images can be easily Geo-located Automatically.
• Also pro version of Google earth makes you to import Super large images file for Overlays, while with basic earth would only limit you to import maximum texture size image files.
• With all the above comparison, With Google Earth Pro you can make offline HD movies.
• Can measure area, radius and circumference on the ground.
• Map multiple points.
• View demographic, parcel and traffic data layer.
• Get the large data-set and batch Geocode address.
• Spreadsheet Import: Ingest up to 2500 addresses at a time, assigning Placemarks and style templates in bulk.

Check more: No Need of Google Routing

You just need to navigate to the official page of Google Earth, where you have to accept the terms and condition, and allow to download the Earth on your PC, either it is Mac, or Windows or Linux. Here is the link:

• #### Google Earth Pro – Free

You may be intersted to see some tutorials on Google Earth:

No doubt Google with all different digital products, aims to makes your life easier and comfortable. There are many organization and individual, which are using Google Earth pro to perform different analysis, planning hikes, planning a new office building, trip to the mountains and placing solar panels on rooftops. Let us discuss by commenting below, where you use Google Earth pro? And how Earth software troubleshoot your work? Do download the Earth pro and enjoy its features.

## Find out your history location from Google Map – Track, Export and Delete.

Google Map tracks your history location and allows you to manage, Delete and view your old location. Where you were, last week at 9 PM? Well its not easy to remember your every move in every day life, after few days. Google may maintains and tracks all your history location if you have opted to enable your Location service from any device which is linked with your Google Account. Your every location get tracked by Google from browser or from any of the mobile devices, which actually allows to send the current location data to Google, which let you to find out your history location from Google Map.

## Turn on or off location history tracking from Mobile or Browser:

Why to turn ON location tracking? There are many apps and web services which uses your location to either share or fetch the relevant data to you, which in turn increase your efficiency in some way. For Ex. “Google Now” Application. ?And Why to turn OFF location tracking? Obviously, privacy concern is the reason, as no body knows ‘how safe the data is’.

Google tracks your location from either mobile devices which are linked to your Google Account or from the browser in which you are logged in with Google Account, where you have enabled setting to track your physical location in Setting of browser.

### Steps to Either turn ON or OFF your location history tracking in different devices and browser:

1.) In Browser:

• In Chrome and Opera – Select setting and under Location tab, select the appropriate option to enable or disable tracking.
• In Mozilla Firefox – Select Tools, and click on options. Now navigate to privacy tab and under tracking select the check box accordingly.
• In Safari – Select setting preferences and then privacy, where you need to select the desired option.

2.) In Mobile Devices:

• Android – Go to Google Setting -> Location -> Location history. And Turn On or Off from the given check box.

• IOS – Open Settings > Privacy > Location Services. Toggle the button to switch on or off your location tracking for different application.

Google also provide a salient feature to predict future and know current traffic, which uses many devices location data, and on which an algorithm may run to output congestion of roads.

## Track and view your history location from Google Map – Track and Export:

1.) Open up your browser and copy paste the following URL : https://maps.google.com/locationhistory.
2.) Sign-in in the current tab, with the Google Account of which your Google Device is associated with.
3.) Now choose date and period of days i.e in between 1 to 30 Day. And Select “Show Time stamps” if needed to track a particular moment of the day.

• Note: If you want to see every minute latitude longitude points, then you may need to select “Show All points” hyperlink, which you may find at bottom left corner as indicated in the figure.

Also you can export your location data in KML format (Keyhole markup language), option can be found just below “Show Timestamp” option, which you may use either to:

## Delete history location from Google Map:

Why you want to delete your location history from the website? Privacy issue is a serious concern, and you may not want any app or services to record your every move. But don’t worry, Google provided a way for this. You can Delete some part of day location or the either entire location from the Location history website. Here are the steps to delete the location history:

2.) From the left panel of the website, you may find “Delete history from this time period” to delete your selected “time stamp” and “Delete all history” to delete entire history data from the website.

You may also delete the entire location history data from your mobile device. Just navigate to Google Setting and select location. Tap on Location history and click on “Delete Location History”.

• Note: Once you have erased your history data, it can’t be restore. Also you may face issues with some application which uses your location data like “Google Now”.

You may also look at following features of Google Map:

### Conclusion – History location from Google Map:

You can use Google history Location as an application to get to understand and analyze your traveling and location history. Google being fair to public, provided all the setting, to choose whether you want to get tracked or not. While they also mention, that they will keep the data with them as private.

Well I had kept my location service enable to let me track myself to analyze my every day location data. What you have opted for? What else you may want from this Feature? And Which kind of Analysis you are performing with the data you get from location history? Do Comment below, i would love to hear your ideas.

NOTE: If you are from Korea, Location History website may not be available.

## Haversine Formula – Calculate geographic distance on earth

Haversine Formula – Calculate geographic distance on earth. If you have two different latitude – longitude values of two different point on earth, then with the help of Haversine Formula, you can easily compute the great-circle distance (The shortest distance between two points on the surface of a Sphere). The term Haversine was coined by Prof. James Inman in 1835. Haversine is very popular and frequently used formula when developing a GIS (Geographic Information System) application or analyzing path and fields.

You can use this Online Route Compass Tool, which calculates the distance based on haversine Formula and also computes the Bearing angle too :

Route Compass Online Tool to Compute Haversine Distance

## Haversine formula:

Central angle Haversine can be computed, between two points with r as radius of earth, d as the distance between two points, $\phi_1, \phi_2$ is latitude of two points and $\lambda_1, \lambda_2$ is longitude of two points respectively, as:

$\operatorname{haversin}\left(\frac{d}{r}\right) = \operatorname{haversin}(\phi_2 - \phi_1) + \cos(\phi_1) \cos(\phi_2)\operatorname{haversin}(\lambda_2-\lambda_1)$

### Law of Haversine:

To derive law of Haversine one needs to start the calculation with spherical law of cosine i.e cos a = cos b * cos c + sin b * sin c * cos A

One can derive Haversine formula to calculate distance between two as:

a = sin²(ΔlatDifference/2) + cos(lat1).cos(lt2).sin²(ΔlonDifference/2)
c = 2.atan2(√a, √(1−a))
d = R.c

where,

ΔlatDifference = lat1 – lat2 (difference of latitude)

ΔlonDifference = lon1 – lon2 (difference of longitude)

R is radius of earth i.e 6371 KM or 3961 miles

and d is the distance computed between two points.

### Here is the example result delivered by Haversine Formula:

Lets take one of latitude-longitude for calculation distance,
NEBRASKA, USA (Latitude : 41.507483, longitude : -99.436554) and
KANSAS, USA (Latitude : 38.504048, Longitude : -98.315949)

Do compute the distance with the above written formula. Your answer would be 347.3 Km(kilo-meter). The snapshot demonstrate the same result with map below.

If you are getting problem in understanding Haversine formula or getting error in the result do comment below. Also if you have more relevant information about the same, do share with us by writing below.

## Measure Straight line distance in Google Map

Measure Straight line distance in Google Map between two points. Straight line distance can be calculated with Haversine distance formula or Great circle distance formula. Google Map, a web mapping service application and technology, which provides and enrich a common user experience for free, like, Route planner for traveling by foot, car or public transportation with estimated travel time, Congestion description on current time or with prediction time, measure distance from one place to other either straight or route wise, see near by location and many more. You  can easily calculate straight line distance measurement, by just following simple steps.

## Measure Straight line distance in Google Map:

Note: Google provides two different version of map as, Classic Google Map (now with new Google Map Lite mode version) and a newly customized Google map. For both version, different steps are to followed to calculate distance. Below are the methods for both.

### New Google Map: Measure Straight line distance:

2.) Right click, from your starting point on Map, and select Measure Distance options.
3.) Click on destination point to which you want to measure distance. Done.

4.) Under the search box, see the calculated distance, as shown below in the figure.

How to switch between Google classic map and Google new map. Now switch to Lite Mode Google Map version.

### Classic Google Map: Measure Straight line distance:

2.) Click on Map lab link, appearing just left bottom panel.
3.) Enable “Distance Measurement tool”, and save changes.

4.) Click on ruler icon which appear at the lower left hand corner of map.
5.) Click on your start point and the end point, this will give your straight line measurement, shown in the left panel as shown.

Google map provides many feature, you can explore many other features as:

Hope this article helped you, to measure straight line distance, between two points. Do comment, below with your experience to calculate distance on Google Map.

Create save digitize and download kml or kmz from Google Earth. Google earth can be named a virtual globe or map of earth, which provide high resolution view of any area in recent years or any period of time from last decades. Always its not possible to go for field survey and prepare the layers like roads, places, river, water-body , settlements etc for any GIS application as it need resources and manual work which increases cost and project duration. Why do not one use a efficient way for the creation of layers like digitize kmz from the Google earth and convert it to shape-file or use directly. You can also see for how to save, create and export kml file from Google map. To digitize and save kmz from Google earth following steps need to be followed.

1) Start with running the application of Google earth on desktop or laptop, wait till the globe appears in the Google earth application window.

2) Add a folder to the My places contained by Places window of Google earth as shown in fig below.

3) Give name which you want to give to kmz in the tab opened clicking on the My place>add>folder button.

4) To plot a kmz of line type click on the Add Path button on the toolbar placed on the top of the window.

5) Start digitizing with the left click of the mouse and scrolling the window up, down, left and right by pressing the scroll wheel and zoom in and zoom out by rotating the scroll wheel inward and outward. To undo plotted points adjoining line press right click.

6) Save every line feature in the same folder named for kmz. Name of the feature can be edited by right click on the feature in the place window and going to properties of the feature.

7) Now after digitizing all feature save the kmz to the desired destination by right clicking on the folder in the My places.

8) Lastly the question may arise how to digitize kmz with polygon and point feature. For polygon feature click on Add Polygon on the tool bar and for point feature click on Add Place marks on the toolbar.

Note: Google provides Google Earth and this kind of service for free. But i suppose, if you are going to extract and create KML file with your program in bulk, then Google may notify you for the same.

You may also look on some other tutorial:

Thus Kmz is digitized and saved from Google earth. One may convert the kmz to shp in any GIS software like ArcGIS, QGIS, Global Mapper. Do comment below if you are getting any issue in performing above steps. Also do let us know in what way and in which application you are using KML file for performing GIS operation, by putting the information in the below provided space.

## Upload Excel latitude longitude in QGIS as Spatial Layer

Upload Excel latitude longitude in QGIS as Spatial Layer and save as Shapefile.  When you have collection of point data i.e latitude and longitude, stored in Excel file in different column, then you can easily view and Save it as Vector layer file in QGIS(Quantum GIS). Well after uploading Excel latitude longitude values as spatial layer,  you are only one step back, to convert the Excel data in Shapefile or KML or any vector file.

Before starting the exercise, you need to have a data excel file, which should be convert to Comma Delimited .csv file(Depends upon your choice, Comma delimited is common). To convert Excel file in .csv file, open the file and select save as type “CSV (Comma delimited) (*.csv)”. Name the file and save it.

• Note: If you are using old version of QGIS then, do download and install plugin “Add delimited text layer”.  To install a plugin,
• Go to Plugins -> Manage and install Plugins, search for “Add delimited text layer“, and install it.

## Steps to Upload Excel latitude longitude in QGIS as Spatial Layer

1.) Open up QGIS and click on layer, from menu tab and select Add delimited text layer.

2.) Browse the already created .csv excel file, which has latitude and longitude coordinates.

3.) By default, if your column is named as latitude and longitude, then, X will be mapped to longitude and Y will be mapped to latitude. Select OK after mapping X and Y.

4.) Select the desired coordinate reference system and press OK, the file get uploaded as Spatial layer in QGIS.

Well if you want to convert this uploaded Spatial layer in Shapefile or KML or any other vector file, select on layer, and click on save as. In the open window, select the desired format in which you want to save the file. Done. I suppose this tutorial would be helpful to you. If you are facing any problem, then do comment below.

Create save Export and download KML file from Google map.  Google map or Google Earth makes use of KML or keyhole markup language, to display features, which actually stores geographic features in Vector format. You can create KML file from Google map for mapping and displaying the same by again uploading the same KML file on Google map or created KML file converted from Shapefile. Before creating KML file on Google map, you should have an Google account and should be logged in wtih that. So that once KML file created, you would be able to see it in My Places of Google map after wards. You can also look link for how to create KML file from Google earth.

Note: Google provides Google map and this kind of service for free. But i suppose, if you are going to extract and create KML file with your program in bulk, then Google may notify you for the same.

1.) Open Google map and sign in with all in one Google account.

2.) Click the setting button which appears at the bottom right corner of map as shown below (New Google map), and select My places. Or if you are using old map theme, then choose my places from top right corner.

• Update: If you are not getting my places option from here, then you click on left side Menu icon (three lines) and select your places and tap on Maps.

Once you clicked your places select the Maps.

3.) Now click on Create Map (in the last with blue font) which will open new link in new tab and select Create Map again.

4.) Perform and create a map, with the help of tool bars as shown below, Which has following options i.e

• Undo
• Redo
• Select item
• Draw a line